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Sensing technology is used to monitor, regulate and control processes. More distinctively, presence sensors help verify that critical process steps are concluded as intended. A sensor is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example, a mercury-in-glass thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. Athermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage which can be read by a voltmeter. For certainty, most sensors are calibrated against known standards. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include cars, machines, aerospace, medicine, manufacturing and robotics. A sensor is a device, which responds to an input quantity by generating a functionally related output usually in the form of an electrical or optical signal. A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the measured quantity changes. Sensors that measure very small changes must have very high sensitivities. Sensors also have an impact on what they measure; for instance, a room temperature thermometer inserted into a hot cup of liquid cools the liquid while the liquid heats the thermometer. Sensors need to be designed to have a small effect on what is measured; making the sensor smaller often improves this and may introduce other advantages. Technological evolution allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a microscopic scale as microsensors using MEMS technology.
Parallel Computing Based Intelligent Web Services for Health Care Platform.
Population is increasing day by day and hence current trends and technologies must be utilized in the medical fields to create advance level technology and hence to meet health requirements with the available medical resources .Existing system involves into tasks such as building health infrastructure, digitalization and integration of HealthCare Enterprises. It has difficulties such as adapting to dynamic environment and meeting user’s diversified requirements. Our proposed system, Public-oriented Health care Information Service Platform, that is built on modern SOA and web services technology overcomes the above problems and provide really useful healthcare solution to end users .Our proposed system bridges the gap between human minds and technology through this system and that has been helpful in medicinal field.
Design and Implementation of a Web-Service-Based Public-Oriented Personalized Health Care Platform.
The use of information technology and management systems for the betterment of health care is more and more important and popular. However, existing efforts mainly focus on informatization of hospitals or medical institutions within the organizations, and few are directly oriented to the patients, their families, and other ordinary people. The strong demand for various medical and public health care services from customers calls for the creation of powerful individual-oriented personalized health care service systems. Service computing and related technologies can greatly help one in fulfilling this task. In this paper, we present PHISP: a Public-oriented Health care Information Service Platform, which is based on such technologies. It can support numerous health care tasks, provide individuals with many intelligent and personalized services, and support basic remote health care and guardianship. In order to realize the personalized customization and active recommendation of intelligent services for individuals, several key techniques for service composition are integrated, which can support branch and parallel control structures in the process models of composite services and are highlighted in this paper.
Autonomous smart sensor is a highly integrated turn-key device, operates independently and owns itself life cycle. Networked sensors exchange information with protocols; we designed an application-layer protocol named AgileSN making sensor nodes interoperable and interchangeable. AgileSN sensor node itself and captured data that protocol carried are self-descriptive, with these smart capabilities, sensor nodes can be automatically detected or searched by interested peers or sink nodes, and sensor data can be parsed dynamically on the fly without human intervention, made autonomous sensor nodes plug and play in the network world. Like WEB system, well accepted network protocol make network edsensors interchangeable and interoperable, universal sensor tools are possible to process sensed data. We have designed a component-based software tool for sensor application development. In this software environment, all application functionalities are realized through software components, each component is designed to finish a special task, like reading data from networked sensors, data processing, visual presentation, network or local file I/O, HMI, etc. sensor data is processed sequentially by several components through data flow. A component can operate in its own thread, carefully designed component makes the whole data processing flow operates in pipeline mode, greatly improve data processing throughput. Components and data routes can be created and destroyed at runtime, so the application system functionality is reconfigured. We apply the Petri Net tool to model components and the whole application system, investigate their function and performance, present a non-collision high-performance soft-bus for inter-component data transfer, investigate the hazard phenomenon that exists in a multi-input component, and propose technical means to eliminate it.
In recent years, TinyOS and nesC are gradually becoming the de facto software development platform for implementing sensor applications. However, developing sensor applications is difficult for programmers since the programming paradigm used in nesC is different from that used in other popular programming languages. In view of this, we propose in this paper a virtual machine-based programming environment for rapid sensor application development. With the proposed programming environment, sensor applications are implemented in Tiny Java, which is a subset of Java programming language. Developing sensor applications is very similar as developing a traditional Java applications. Therefore, we believe that the proposed programming environment is able to speedup the development of sensor applications.
Fiber optic sensor application opportunities for aerospace propulsion systems is the next frontier for improving aerospace instrumentation. Todays jet engine sensors are expensvie, have high temperature and harsh environment limitations, are bulky, heavy in weight, complex and time consuming to install. Other sensor concerns are electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic pulse generators (EMP). Today a number of advanced aircraft support fiber optic backbone architecture for on-board communications. This paper will discuss jet engine hardware, potential fiber optic sensor application opportunities, fiber optic sensor benefits and and challenges. The paper will conclude with a fiber optic sensor application prediction.
Successful application of piezoresistive sensors for stress measurement requires both properly designed sensors and accurately calibrated values of the piezoresistive coefficients as well as a knowledge of potential sources of error that may be encountered during sensor application. In this work, results of analyses of errors associated with the design, calibration and application of piezoresistive stress sensors fabricated on (100) silicon are presented. In particular, sensor rotational alignment errors during fabrication and resistance measurements errors during calibration have strong effects on the values of the piezoresistive coefficients that are extracted from the calibration process. Also, calibration errors induced by mismatches in the resistor values and/or the actual piezoresistive coefficients of the various resistors in a sensor rosette have been quantified, and the importance of using data acquired only from well-matched resistor rosettes is demonstrated. Finally, it is shown that temperature measurement errors play a pivotal role in determining accuracy of the results obtained during calibration and application of these sensors.
In this study, the use of broadside-coupled SRR (BC-SRR) metamaterial topology is suggested for pressure, temperature, humidity and concentration sensor applications. Also, the use of V-shaped resonator topology is suggested for pressure sensor application. The feasibility of such sensors are demonstrated by numerical simulations for microwave region under magnetic excitation.
Sensor devices that monitor environmental changes in temperature, sound, light, vibration and pressure usually run applications that require the support of a small operating system, lean kernel, or an embedded system. This paper presents a methodology for developing sensor device applications that can be directly run on the bare hardware without any need for middleware. Such bare sensor device applications only depend on the underlying processor architecture, enabling them to run on a variety of devices. The methodology is used for developing, designing, and implementing a temperature sensor application that runs on an ARM processor. The same methodology can be used to build other bare machine sensor device applications for ARM processors, and is easily extended to different processor architectures.
In this paper, we will describe the implementation and experimental analysis of a wireless sensor network application for e-Health. The main idea of the application is to use simple distributed sensor nodes in a home environment, to provide home assistants, nurses, healthcare centers and relatives with a degree of "understanding" and information about the actual persons health and activity status in order to fast determine what kind of help is needed. Another feature of the with the sensor application is the application of localization and tracking within the home environment. We propose a simple localization algorithm based on special sensor data and received signal strength indicator (RSSI) which has a low complexity suitable for small sensor networks. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm works fine in a home environment.
We present the new approach to synthesize materials and nanostructures with application for magnetic field and ultrasound sensing. Our results indicate that electrode position at the nano scale electrode geometry (nanocontacts) is an effective process that can deliver the ferromagnetic metal/oxide materials with desired composition and properties. These materials are the essential part of the nano contact based device architecture which is investigated as the model system for magnetic filed sensor application. As an opposite process to electrodeposition, the dealloying i.e. a selective metal dissolution is used as fabrication process to create a high surface to volume ratio nanoporous metal structures. These structures are used as capacitive transducer for ultrasound sensor application. We present the preliminary results which demonstrate that thin layer - of nanoporous metal electrodes can be used as an inexpensive sensing device for ultrasound in electrolytes.
The development of MEMS accelerometer application as seismic sensor is discussed in this paper. The system consists of a sensor signal conditioning, microcontroller circuits, and application programs for data acquisition system. Two capacitive type sensors are used in the system. With the most recent technology of MEMS, it is possible to construct an integrated seismometer using only one chip of MEMSsensor, which traditionally three separated sensors must be employed. From the experiment using calibrating signal, it is shown that the the sensitivity of the system could be increased by the factor of two.
The current development of oil-gas pipeline magnetic flux leakage (MFL) testing sensor, this paper discussed working principle and application of the coil sensor and the Hall element sensor. The two types of sensors in practical applications were analyzed for their characteristics. The article evaluates the sensor application and development situation and proposes for MFL testing sensor development direction.
In this work, a two-chip battery assisted Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based sensor platform is presented. The radio frequency communication interface is based on the EPC Gen 2 standard. A laboratory setup of the platform has been shown and characterized for a moisture content sensorapplication. The laboratory setup of the sensor platform has a reading range of 3.4 meters which is in comparison to commercial available Gen 2 tags. The laboratory platform has an average power consumption of 2.1 μW operating at 3 V, which together with a printed battery gives an estimated lifetime for data logging of several years. The proposed RFID platform provides a tradeoff between, communication performance, compatibility with international standards, and flexibility in on-package customization including type and number of sensors. The proposed architecture separates the high-performance communication circuit and the low-frequency sensor interface logic. In the future, thesensor interface maybe integrated using printed logics to further enhance the flexibility and low-cost customization features of the architecture.
Flexural plate wave (FPW) device has great potential for biological sensor application due to (1) isolation of its electric circuit from the medium being investigated, (2) low acoustic energy loss in liquid medium, and (3) simpler oscillator circuit design. Since FPW device can be fabricated onto silicon-based substrates by micromachining technology, it offers batch processing for economic sensor fabrication. In this study, ZnO was chosen as a piezoelectric material due to non-toxicity, and chemical and thermal stability for biological sensor application. RF magnetron sputtering and chemical solution deposition (CSD) were investigated for achieving strong c-axis orientation of ZnO films required to launch the acoustic wave in the device. Process parameters such as gas ratio, substrate types, and temperature, were varied for sputtering, and heat treatment and substrate types for CSD. Results showed that process parameters have a strong influence on the preferred orientation and microstructure of ZnO films. Uniform and dense microstructures of ZnO films were obtained by both fabrication methods. CSD method showed, however, stronger dependence of the preferred orientation on substrate types Mechanism for ZnO thin film growth will be discussed. FPW devices have been successfully integrated while less dependence on the substrates for sputtering due to energetic sputtered species. onto 4 inch Si-wafer with 22 different inter digitated electrodes. Optimized device demonstrates the capability to detect biological quantity of 446.13 cm2/gram of sensitivity.
The design of Rotman lens for ESM sensor application in operation band 32-38 GHz is demonstrated in the paper. Initial design made in Remcom's Rotman Lens Designer is confronted with the full-wave analysis in CST Microwave Studio as well as with the results of experimental measurements. Rotman lens was tested as a broadband replacement of conventional waveguide reflective phasers intended for the sensor. Parameters of realized prototype are presented and methods of increasing its performance of the structure are outlined.
We propose a sensor application platform using a managed wireless mesh network for providing a variety of services that are demanded by individuals living in a local region and various communities to which each individual belongs and that conventional telecom networks or sensor networks are not able to provide at a reasonable cost. The proposed system, which is based on openness, establishes logical paths with a many-to-many mesh topology on a physical wireless mesh network, providing logically different service domains. This makes a variety of sensor applications/services available on a single platform. Mechanisms of the platform and operation models of the platform are presented.
This paper presents an investigation on sputtered titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film for application in the Extended-Gate Field Effect Transistor (EGFET) sensor application for pH detection. The TiO2 thin film was fabricated on conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) covered glass by using RF Sputtering method. An EGFET proof-of-concept setup was constructed using a commercial FET as the transducer and the TiO2/ITO structure was used for the extended gate. The sensor measurement was taken using semiconductor device parametric analyzer, constant-current constant-voltage biasing interfacing circuit and data logger to obtain the sensitivity and the characteristics for output voltage with respect to time. TiO2 thin film on ITO glass as the sensing membrane was compared with a bare ITO glass substrate for the extended gate. The TiO2/ITO glass exhibited the sensitivity of 42.1 mV/pH and good linearity of 0.9997 in the sensing range pH4, pH7 and pH10 which was better than the bare ITO glass sensitivity of 31.3 mV/pH and the linearity of 0.9868.
Highway airstrips construct the airport net with stock airports and standby airports as assistant, and the icing condition of airstrip surface need be monitored. Surface acoustic wave(SAW) ice sensor is in small size and can wireless passive measure, potential in highway airstrip ice monitoring application. Based on Zimmermann's theory, the impacts of guiding layer thickness on phase velocity was studied in a practical experimental setting in which the guiding layer was SU-8 and the substrate was ST90Â° X quartz, The preparatory experiment was carried out to prove the Love wave ice sensor principle. The results show that Love wave ice sensor could distinguish air, water and ice clearly. The SAW icesensor application scheme in highway airstrip was put forward according to the experimental results.
The Matrix Assisted Pulse Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) is a new progressive technology which has been found as a convenient method for thin organic (polymeric) film preparation. The goal of the work is to use prepared films for gas sensor application. The deposition was carried out by KrF excimer laser (wavelength 248 nm) in a chamber at working pressure of 3 Pa. Deposited materials (polypyrrole -PPY, Cu (II) para-tetramethylphenylporphyrine -CuTTMP, Indium acetyl-acetonate -InAcAc and Nickel phtalocyanine -NiPc) are embedded in frozen matrix (water, dimethylsulphoxide or chloroform) at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The deposition can be described as photothermal process where the matrix molecules are preferentially evaporated due to their higher absorption coefficient on the laser wavelength. The molecules of deposited materials obtain sufficient kinetic energy through collective collisions with the vaporized matrix molecules, to be transferred into the gas phase. Small molecules of matrix are pumped away from the deposition chamber, while PPY, InAcAc, NiPc and CuTTMP molecules are incident on the sensor substrate, which is placed 35 mm far from the target. Thus thin organic layer is grown. Raman spectroscopy confirmed good similarity of chemical composition between source and deposited CuTTMP when using chloroform matrix. Prepared layers can be used as an element of safety gas detection systems as well as low-cost analytical tool for different gas concentration during industrial chemical production. Sensor responses to hydrogen, nitrogen dioxide and alcohol vapours in air were also measured. The obtained results of dc sensitivity (S -i.e. ratio of resistance in "pure" air and that in analysed gas mixture): S ~ 11 to 10,000 ppm of hydrogen, S ~1.5 to 1 ppm of nitrogen dioxide, S ~ 4 to 40 ppm of methanol, S ~ 5 to 20 ppm of ethanol and S ~ 6 to 2 ppm of propanol.
Acceptable Quality-of-Information (QoI) is essential for sensor network applications such as infrastructure health monitoring because it directly impacts public safety. However, it is a challenging problem to attain good QoI of sensor applications due to unpredictable environment noise, unreliable network communication, and varying requirements for wide variety of sensor applications. We believe the first step to addressing this challenge is to develop an application-independent QoI model. In this paper, we present a fundamental quality-of-information model based on signal-to-noise ratio. Our model addresses information quality by considering sensor measurement quality, network quality and sensor application requirements by end users. Furthermore, we develop a quality-aware scheduling framework which exploits an analytical queue model to calculate and adapt sensor node sampling rate and base station scheduling priority in order to optimize overall quality. Our results show that sensor measurement quality in terms of sampling rate, network quality in terms of loss rate and delay, all play significant roles in impacting overall quality. A QoI-aware scheduler thus is an effective approach to quantify information quality and adapt for unpredictable sensor networks.
The drive toward smart cities alongside the rising adoption of personal sensors is leading to a torrent of sensor data. While systems exist for storing and managing sensor data, the real value of such data is the insight which can be generated from it. However there is currently no platform which enables sensor data to be taken from collection, through use in models to produce useful data products. The architecture of such a platform is a current research question in the field of Big Data and Smart Cities. In this paper we explore five key challenges in this field and provide a response through a sensor data platform “Concinnity” which can take sensor data from collection to final product via a data repository and workflow system. This will enable rapid development of applications built on sensor data using data fusion and the integration and composition of models to form novel workflows. We summarize the key features of our approach, exploring how it enables value to be derived from sensor data efficiently.
The usage of novel LED-light sources for spectrometric application is shown and described in this paper. The utilization of fiber optical linkage to a simple open path absorption cell and a proper control of the light sources is the key to a robust and high resolved measurement system. A novel optical sensor system based on this approach is realized to measure the concentration of nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide with a resolution below 1 ppm and ozone down to 30 ppb at a 4 cm single reflection cell in a fraction of a second measurement time. In this setup the emitted light from Light Emitting Diodes in the ultraviolet to the visible wavelength range was used. The optoelectronics and the control electronics are separated from the optical sensor head where the pure optical sensor effect takes place. Therefore the sensor can be used in harsh environment for instance in an exhaust tailpipe system or close to discharge plasma in strong electromagnetic fields or at high temperature. Furthermore the sensordesign is potentially low cost, quite small, long life and well suited for a large number of applications - from small battery powered hand held devices to industrial process control implementation. An LED-based sensor does not compete to laboratory chemical analytical devices but in many cases it is well suited for high resolved and fast online concentration measurements.
This paper describes the first attempt to utilize the MEMS in high power sensing application. We present a design and fabrication of advanced MEMS sensors in high power distribution systems. The developed MEMS is used as a high current power sensor for on-ship and autonomous moving vehicles. We designed and fabricated arrays of low power MEMS switches to handle high power which are magnetically actuated. MEMS provides the much needed optimization with its high speed switching capability compared to mechanical current sensors and improved power handling efficiency over solid-state switches.
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in monitoring and controlling of pH. It has become an important aspect of many industrial wastewater treatment processes. At the same time, the demand for smaller electronic devices used for various industrial and commercial applications has greatly increased. Micro and nano materials, such as Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs), are known for their excellent electrical and mechanical properties, as well as for their small size, therefore they are good candidates to manufacture micro or nano electronic devices. These devices can be used for pH control. However, this cannot be achieved unless CNTs with metallic or semiconducting band structures can be successfully deposited and separated. In these processes, microchip fabrication and deposition of CNTs using Dielectrophoresis (DEP) are involved. Comparing with some traditional pH sensors, which mainly consist of Ion-Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET), signal operational amplifier and Analog Digital Convert (ADC), Nano pH sensor with CNTs may provide more benefits owing to their unique properties. For example, 70-80% of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) are metallic and have high current density, which means this kind of micro device has a linear relationship of I-V characteristic and can produce signal strong enough to make operational amplifying circuits unnecessary. In addition, to manufacture smaller devices more functional becomes possible as CNTs are tiny and compact.
This paper reports a novel circuit to supply constant heating power to the micro-hotplate for integrated gas sensor applications. The circuit is designed so that the heating power is maintained constant in spite of the change of heater resistance value due to process variations. By controlling the biasing current of the power control circuit, the heating power can be controlled linearly. The circuit is realized using CMOS. Simulation shows that the heating power can be controlled at ±0.4% with ±50% changes in heating resistance.
We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of p-type silicon field emitter arrays for the application in compact fast switchable electron sources. Since standard silicon technology has been used to prepare the devices, they can be easily integrated with other silicon based sensors and electronic components, too. The emitter arrays consist of approx. 3×105 tips per cm2, with a tip radius less than 20 nm. By using self-aligned processes, an integrated gate electrode with a diameter of ~3 μm was placed concentrically around the tips. A mesh of silicon-beams with a grating period of 100 μm and beam width of 20 μm forms the anode of the electron source. A glass wafer (thickness 300 μm) acts as spacer between anode and Si-tip cathode. Characterization of the field emission properties of the emitter arrays was performed by high resolution field emission scanning microscopy. The emitter arrays exhibit a highly stable and very homogeneous emission. A maximum stable current of 0.1 μA per tip was found. A saturation level in the voltage current characteristics, which was found at around 10 nA, supports current stabilisation and will enable optical modulation of the emission current.
The effect of SnO2 thin film thickness as humidity sensor application has been investigated. In this paper, Humidity sensitivity of SnO2 thin film at different thickness deposited by thermal chemical vapor deposition were presented. The electrical, optical and structural properties of SnO2 thin film deposited at different deposition time using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were investigated. The thin films were characterized using current-voltage (I-V) measurement (Keithley 2400) and photoluminescence (PL) measurement (Horiba Jobin Yvon-DU420A-OE-325 system) for electrical and optical properties respectively. The structural propeties has been characterized using field emmision scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) (JEOL JSM 6701F). The humidity measurement were conducted on Au metal contact deposited on SnO2 thin film that connected to a circuit using copper wire. The sensor were characterized using I-V measurement (Keithley 2400) in a humidity chamber (ESPEC SH-261) and the chamber has been set at same room temperature (25 °C) but different percent relative humidity (RH %) at 40 RH% to 90 RH. Deposition time for 60 minutes show high sensitivity . PL measurement revealed one peak at about between range red emission for all thin film. FESEM image show SnO2 nanoparticle growth on the nucleation site of gold catalyst.
CNT-SnO2 and CNT-In2O3 composite materials were prepared for micro sensor application. Micro sensors with CNT-SnO2 and CNT-In2O3 films were designed and fabricated using microelectronics technology on the silicon substrate prefabricated with Pt electrodes and heater. Gas sensing properties of the sensors were tested against combustible gases, such as H2, CO, CH4, C3H8, and NO2, which are common pollutant in the air. The CNT-SnO2 and CNT-In2O3 composites showed higher sensitivity and selectivity to H2, NO2 and CO respectively. The present gas sensors are low energy consuming portable sensor module that can be mass-produced applying the synthesized nano gas sensing materials using vacuum microelectronics technology.
The fluxgate magnetometer, which has been used for many years in the measurement of dc or low frequency magnetic fields, may also be adapted to the quantitative measurement of magnetic field impulses of short duration. The impulse is effectively stored in the sensor and read out during one or more excitation periods. This storage is accomplished by means of a shorted coil of suitable time constant wound around the sensor core. A possible application is the location and measurement of the amount of charge transfer in lightning flashes.
To solve the problem of global synchronization in massively parallel VLSI systems, it is necessary to organize asynchronous interaction between system blocks. The possibility of applying current sensors for detection of the end of signal transitions to construct asynchronous blocks in CMOS-technology is discussed. For known current sensors, their design principles and characteristics are analysed. Two ways of organizing the interaction between circuits with current sensors are suggested. Stubborn problems of using the known current sensors that appear due to the imperfection of their characteristics are formulated. A current sensor is suggested that removes the major of these problems but is capable of working only with a particular circuit class. However, simulation results indicated that using even such sensors is not efficient enough.
The performance of a chemical gas sensor based on polycrystalline tin oxide films is strongly related to their structure, thickness and doping. In previous works we have studied the influence of the thickness on the detection by impedance spectroscopy analysis [1,2]. In the present work we have focused our attention in designing and modelizing a sensor for detection of NOx for environmental applications. Reactive sputtered films with Al, In and Pt were characterized by complex impedance spectroscopy, Hall effect and d.c measurements.
This paper presents a bidirectional OLED microdisplay with a monochrome 320×240 display and a nested image sensor with 160×120 pixels in 0.35 μm CMOS for near-to-eye and sensor applications.
Synthesis of Polycarbazole (PCz) is reported using anhydrous ferric chloride as an oxidizing agents. A comparative study of chemically synthesized PCz with electrochemically synthesized is also made. A composite of PCz and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containing 20% PVC by weight is synthesized and used for the development of solid state pH electrode. The composite was synthesized to improve mechanical strength, stability, and restrict solubility. The pH sensor response is found to be reversible and linear in the pH range 5-10 with sensitivity 35±2mV/pH. PCz and PVC (20 wt%) based pH sensors show potential applications in development of pH transducers based sensors/biosensors.
This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of an energy harvester using a piezoelectric freestanding bulk diaphragm as the sensing element. The diaphragm containing the spiral electrode operates in d33 mode, which is different from the commonly used d31 mode diaphragm. The polarization in the diaphragm has a complex distribution that follows to the poling field induced by the double spiral electrode. The matching load impedance and the optimized working frequency were characterized.
Nanosized SnO2 based sensors are widely used for gas sensing applications because of their low operating temperature and high surface area. SnO2 films are conventionally deposited by chemical vapor deposition, evaporation, sol-gel and sputtering which are very expensive, time consuming processes and complex. In contrast, electro phoretic deposition (EPD) is simple, cost effective which makes it possible to fabricate reliable porous coatings. The aim of this work is to deposit porous and homogenous SnO2 films by using EPD and to investigate the surface morphology of the films for gas sensor production. In this study nanosized SnO2 (60nm) particles were used in non-aqueous mediums with and without iodine to prepare stabilized EPD suspension. Homogeneous and porous film layers were processed and analyzed at various time and voltages. The results showed that highly porous, crack free and homogeneous SnO2 films on Pt coated alumina substrate were achieved for 5 and 15 seconds at 100V EPD parameters. Optimum sintering between the SnO2 nanoparticles was observed at 500oC. Deposited film thickness of 5 μm was measured by scanning electron microscopy. According to initial results, EPD deposited SnO2 films showed high sensitivity to liquified petroleum gas (LPG) at various gas concentration and operation temperature.
Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is among the new technology that compliment other tomography methods such as ultrasonic, optical, capacitance and several others. This type of tomography applies the magnetic field to detect the existence of the object that is going to image. Several methods are possible in constructing the magnetic induction hardware. Most of the researchers used coils for both transmitter and receiver which are more complicated and need large space. The Hall Effect sensors (HES) have the potential of replacing the coil at the receiver side since it has the ability to measure the value of magnetic field strength and convert it to voltage value. This concept is same as the ultrasonic sensors used in ultrasonic tomography instrumentation hardware. The results have shown that the pattern of capture data by hall effect sensor are almost the same pattern for all 8 sensors for each material used. Thishave given positive sign that HES is capable to be applied in MIT measurement system.
The usage of MOSFET is not limited as amplifier and switch only but it has great potential to become the sensors when sensing mediums which integrated on to MOSFET. This research is intended to study the combination of MOSFET and photoconductive material to perform as a single device light sensor MOSFET (LiSFET) using standard lithography process. Photolithography (also called optical lithography) has long been used to transfer circuit patterns from a template called photomask (or simply mask) on to silicon wafers during integrated circuit (IC) fabrication. When a light source is used to project the mask image onto the wafer, the image quality is often affected by the performance of the imaging system (also called exposure system).
A novel millimeter wave monopulse slotted waveguide array antenna with a central hole for infrared sensor use is presented. The amplitude distribution is optimized, and a monopulse comparator is designed to feed the proposed array. This millimeter wave array antenna has been fabricated and measured. The gain of the sum beam is higher than 32dB, whereas the zero depth of the difference beam is lower than -28dB. The side-lobe level is -15.0dB in E-plane and that in H-plane is -13.0dB.
In this paper, we present a transceiver module, which operates at the center frequency of 94 GHz, for a frequency modulated continues wave (FMCW) radar. A transmitter part consists of a waveguide voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and a magic tee for 94 GHz, and a receiver part is essentially a Schottky diode mixer chip mounted on an A1203 sapphire substrate. The fabricated transceiver module has good RF characteristics such as wide linear band with low error late (480 MHz at 1.45 %), high output power through a magic tee (over 11.43 dBm), and good conversion loss at the IF frequency of 500 MHz (10.8 to 11.8 dB).
A class-C power amplifier (PA) for operation as an antenna interface in body sensor network (BSN) applications is presented. It is fabricated in a 0.13 μm RF CMOS process for operation in the 400 MHz MedRadio band. It achieves a measured peak output power of -4 dBm and drain efficiency
A programmable hybrid neural network architecture has been used to implement a smart optical sensor with focal-plane pattern classification for a flexible manufacturing cell environment. The network contains an integrated photosensitive array based on modified photo BJTs as input to a fully-connected multilayer feedforward (MLFF) neural classifier. The architecture features a distributed neuron realization that employs a number of active nonlinear resistor circuits operating in parallel. It minimizes the effect of parameter variations due to non-uniform device fabrication over the die surface. Moreover, due to the modularity of the architecture and locality of interconnections, synaptic density has been doubled in comparison with a conventional realization. A photosensor-classifier chip consisting of a 2-D array of 64 neural-based smart pixels and additional neural network circuits has been fabricated. The proposed architecture has been implemented in both CMOS and BiCMOS process technologies as part of a sensor optimization study.
VHDL code is one of design entry through FPGA. In this paper, VHDL code for smell sensing system that has capable of discriminating between acetone, ethanol and methanol is described. The smell of these VOCs samples are sensed using micromachined gas sensor. Xilinx Foundation Series 2.1 is used as an implementation's software to design and compile the VHDL code for this application. Based on map report it is found that the entire system require 165 out of 400 CLB that occupy 41% of its overall CLB. The maximum frequency that allowed in this system is 33 MHz.
The purpose of this research was to produce a concept for a wireless capacitive sensor application using a ferroelectric thin film based varactor. The varactor is based on the nonlinear tun ability of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST). A Schering bridge circuit is utilized for this study, for optimizing the output response.
Carbon nano tubes (CNTs) are a promising material for novel sensor and interconnect applications. In both cases, the device performance depends strongly on the electronic properties of the tubes. Methods for tuning the electronic structure and especially the band gap are highly desirable. A computational study of cobalt decorated CNTs, by means of density functional theory, reveals that very few cobalt atoms can have a significant impact on the electronic structure, turning semiconducting CNTs into the metallic state. This is further verified by quantum transport simulations. The influence of different amounts of cobalt is also investigated.
In the field of smart sensors new applications named electronic noses are now developed and used for environmental air quality control. In our case we are developing such an application based on a tin oxide gas sensor array for the main detection of two gases : a refrigerant gas Forane 134a (Hydro fluorocarbon) and a carbonic gas. Due to the high sensitivity to humidity observed for these types ofsensors, we study here the ability of our system to well discriminate the target gases and also their concentrations whatever the relative humidity rate in a wide range. By using a multidimensional pattern recognition method (Discriminant Factorial Analysis) these learning process results are presented and the created decisive laws are used to successfully identify unknown cases.
To effectively reduce the insertion loss of piezoelectric micro sensors, this study aims to develop a high C-axis orientation ZnO piezoelectric thin film by magnetic RF sputtering system. The substrate temperature, RF power and argon/oxygen (Ar/O2) flow ratio of sputtering process are varied and their influence on the grain size, pore density and X-ray diffraction (XRD) intensity of the eight sputtered ZnO thin films deposited on Si/Cr/Au substrate are investigated. Under the optimum condition obtained in this research (temperature: 100 °C, RF power: 350 W and Ar/O2 flow ratio: 30sccm/13sccm), the average grain size of the optimized ZnO thin film is only about 74.7 nm and near zero pore density can be achieved. In addition, a very high XRD diffraction intensity (12,500 a.u.) and a 34.1° diffraction angle of the optimized ZnO thin film, which matches to the 34.422° diffraction angle of standard C-axis ZnO film, can be demonstrated in this work. Under the optimized ZnO deposition condition, a very low insertion loss (-11 dB) and center frequency (12.11 MHz) of the ZnO-based FPW device can be obtained.
The accurate measurement of vehicle yaw rate is vital for vehicle dynamics control, such as yaw control and traction control. Generally, vehicle yaw rate is measured by gyro that costs too much to be used commercially as an on-vehicle sensor. Based on soft sensor technique in inferential control theory, a novel method for the estimation of vehicle yaw rate is proposed. The estimation is based on Kalman filter and 2 degree-of-freedom vehicle dynamic models to realize the estimation of way rate of linear minimize mean square error. Results of simulation and experiment show an accurate and low-cost estimation of yaw rate is achieved and soft sensor estimation method is feasible in measurement of vehicle state.
A glass planar optical waveguide with a top layer of mesostructured or mesoporous metal oxide films, such as TiO2, SnO2, ZnO2, ZrO2, WO3, Al2O3, Ta2O5 or Nb2O5, was proposed for chemical, biological and gas sensor applications. To demonstrate the application feasibility of such a composite waveguide structure, a slide glass substrate with a tin-diffused layer was dip-coated with a mesostructured hybrid film of peroxopolytungstic acid and block copolymer template. On the basis of the polarimetric interference, the resulting waveguide has been demonstrated to have a high sensitivity to ammonia in air at room temperature.
Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIP) were prepared by photochemical route. Photoinduced polymerization was used to achieve the preparation of the MIP and at the same time spatially controlled irradiation allowed shaping the material to confer it an optical function useful for interrogation. Such route significantly simplifies the integration of MIP for sensor applications. Specific photopolymerizable MIP were designed for photopolymerization at different wavelengths and advanced methods of photopatterning were used including optical near-field, interference or self-guiding lithography. Photopatterning appears thereby as one of the most suitable methods for patterning MIP at the micro and nano scale, directly on the transducer surface.
In this letter, we report the piezoresistive effect at room temperature of a AlxGa1-xAs thin film, which has been integrated on the beams of an accelerometer as sensing elements to detect the external strain. The AlxGa1-xAs piezoresistive thin film was grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on a semi-insulating (001) GaAs substrate. And the GaAs-based piezoresistive accelerometer has been processed with advanced surface micromachining processes and GaAs bulk micromachining processes. The measurements of piezoresistive properties were performed for tensile strains by static experiments. The measured maximum gauge factor G (ΔR/R = Gε) for the AlGaAs thin film can be estimated to 70. Meanwhile, the dynamic experiments showed the sensor response.
This paper presents a low-voltage operated instrumentation amplifier design for enzyme-extended-gate field-effect transistor (EEGFET) biosensor signal readout applications. The instrumentation amplifier built by three bulk-driven amplifiers fabricated in a 0.5 μm double-poly double-metal CMOS technology and other off-chip resistors has been proved to have a potential application in urea sensor signal sensing. Key parameters of the bulk-driven amplifier and the instrumentation amplifier have been verified for the low-voltage signal readout consideration. The system for urea monitoring has been performed with 1.5 V power supply. Experiment results show that the developed instrumentation amplifier has an acceptable sensing response of various urea concentrations in the range of 0.3125 to 240mg/dl.
For the rapid prototyping of mixed-signal systems in the automotive industry, tools such as MatrixX or Simulink permit the validation of control concepts. However, the physical properties of analog circuits must often be modeled. In this case, behavioral models are created and used in a real time simulation as a virtual prototype. This paper gives an overview of methods that allow us to generate analog circuit models in C++, these portions of C++ can be used as a virtual prototype. In order to achieve the necessary performance, the generation of behavioral models is combined with very fast simulation methods.
Industry continually strives to develop product faster and more cost effectively. By automating processes, manufacturers can realize these goals while maintaining higher levels of quality and reliability. Presence sensing technology is used to monitor, regulate and control these processes. More specifically, presence sensors help verify that critical process steps are completed as intended. The first section of this chapter covers the terminology and basic operating principles common to all sensors; the remainder outlines a methodology for reviewing potential applications and selecting the best sensor for the job. Later chapters will discuss, in some detail, the most prevalent technologies and their application:
A sensor is a device for detecting and signalling a changing condition. And what is this “changing condition”? Often this is simply the presence or absence of an object or material (discrete sensing). It can also be a measurable quantity like a change in distance, size or color (analog sensing). This information, or the sensor’s output, is the basis for the monitoring and control of a manufacturing process.The Sensors Technologies Program integrates with most other programs in NIFA. Nearly all aspects of production, processing, and management in agricultural and food systems (including forestry and natural resources) involve measurement of product/resource attributes (such as quantity, quality, size, condition) or their environment (such as food impurities, or agricultural/forest air, water, and soils).
Rural economies and their infrastructures are also affected. Their biometric activities include inspection, monitoring, tracking, inventory, and valuation. The number of measurement variables—and their measurement frequency and level of detail—demands automated, high-resolution, and rapid technologies. In the interests of efficiency and wise stewardship, increasingly voluminous data are collected that must be further analyzed, interpreted, and applied to support intelligent decision making. Advances in biometrology and information technologies are required to address our need for timely and reliable information that has temporal and spatial relevance .Food safety and quality represent one of the greatest public issues/concerns nationwide. Safety and quality depend on inspection and monitoring methods that can detect contaminants and discriminate defective (or poor quality) products. Whereas manual, microscopic, or bio-assay inspections cannot be performed quickly and accurately on 100 percent of any food product, sensor and instrumentation technologies currently under development and testing promise to offer inspection capabilities that are accurate, fast (in real time), and consistent. These technologies can range from detecting: internal bruising of apples to 10 cells of Listeria (a particularly virulent food pathogen) to insect infestations in a ship's cargo of grain.
Environmental quality is another area where sensor-based monitoring can be helpful. For example, animal feeding operators can use air quality monitoring around confined animals to keep ammonia or odor emission within acceptable limits. Water monitoring for nitrogen and phosphorus runoff from agricultural lands can help regulate freshwater algae blooms and costal-zone hypoxia. An ability to quickly and accurately measure carbon sequestration in soils can facilitate more widespread application of a carbon-credit and trading market place.These types of measurement activities create special problems, however, because the elements being measured are molecular and they need to be quantified over large land areas. Nevertheless, these applications are scientifically possible; it remains to develop the engineering and technology capability to make them economical and practical .Remote sensing and animal health and feeding applications are covered by the Precision Farming program page.
Further information: SenseAll living organisms contain biological sensors with functions similar to those of the mechanical devices described. Most of these are specialized cells that are sensitive to:Light, motion, temperature, magnetic fields, gravity, humidity, moisture, vibration, pressure, electrical fields, sound, and other physical aspects of the external environment Physical aspects of the internal environment, such as stretch, motion of the organism, and position of appendages (proprioception Environmental molecules, including toxins, nutrients, and pheromones Estimation of biomolecules interaction and some kinetics parameters Internal metabolic indicators, such as glucose level, oxygen level, or osmolality Internal signal molecules, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and cytokines Differences between proteins of the organism itself and of the environment or alien creatures.