Multilevel Security in UPnP Networks for Pervasive Environments

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Multilevel Security in UPnP Networks for Pervasive Environments


Security has become a critical concern in pervasive environments, since personal information can be available to malicious users. In this context, some of the major drawbacks in UPnP architecture are the user authentication and service access control, which are not suitable for pervasive environments. Moreover, the inherited heterogeneity of pervasive environments brings different security and privacy requirement concerns depending on the environment and the services provided. This paper introduces a UPnP extension that not only allows multilevel user authentication for pervasive UPnP services, but also provides a flexible security approach that adapts to the network. What is more, it offers a seamless security level negotiation protocol.



Security is a key concern in a wide spread network. Preserving private information is to be given due importance by all communication devices and search engines, since there is a threat of unauthorized users accessing secure information by trapping the network devices. Existing wide spread network of computers, mobile and other electronic devices does not define proper protocols neither based on user’s location nor based on the end user’s requirements in connecting to the network. Our proposed solution provides the most better and promising solution for a good network of plug and play Networks along with high level of authentication and authorization solutions. The proposal uses a Flexi-Negotiable Security solution that takes into account the cost and crude for such implementations along with best interoperability among the connected devices. Set of authorization policies are generated by a network manager using XACML based on the based on the available resources and the number of connected devices thus proving a reliable and secure network of devices. In this project, we are trying to incorporate a control point which will take care of controlling the devices access points. Each individual user needs to get authentication and authorization to access the resources in the network. Control point will take care of validating the request by the users. Once the users holds the authentication/authorization to access the resource in the network. They are permitted or else, no option to access the resources and they will be restricted. The authentication will be verified by the control points through a secure SOAP based web services. Our proposed system involves the above said techniques and its associated with attribute based authentication. So that, higher designated people will be provided with more access options.


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Smartphone’s are now ubiquitous. However, the security requirements of these relatively new systems and the applications they support are still being understood. As a result, the security infrastructure available in current Smartphone operating systems is largely underdeveloped. In this paper, we consider the security requirements of Smartphone applications and augment the existing Android operating system with a framework to meet them. We present Secure Application Interaction (Saint), a modified infrastructure that governs install-time permission assignment and their run-time use as dictated by application provider policy. An in-depth description of the semantics of application policy is presented. The architecture and technical detail of Saint is given, and areas for extension, optimization, and improvement explored. As we show through concrete example, Saint provides necessary utility for applications to assert and control the security decisions on the platform.

[41] A Model Driven Approach for Android Applications Development: 

The mobile application development industry is increasingly growing up due to the intensive use ofapplications in mobile devices, most of them running Android Operating System. However, developing applications for mobile platforms demands additional worries such as code efficiency, interaction with device resources, as well as short time-to-market. Model-driven engineering (MDE) combined with UML, as already used in software engineering , could provide abstraction and automation for mobile software developers. To support that, adequate tools and approaches are required. This paper presents a MDE approach for Android applications development, which includes UML-based modelling and code generation in order to facilitate and accelerate the development of mobile applications.

[42] Data Acquisition Terminal Application Design and Development Based on the Android Platform:  

Google launched a new Android smart phone with the open source operating system when the smart phone system at the disputes. It uses Linux Core, and the members of OHA(Open Handset Alliance) can use and modify SDK bag at will, which open source of system makes it good expanding. This phone takes all software that smart phone needs when working, including operating system, user interface and application. The most outstanding characteristic of Android is the open system framework with good IDE(Integrated Development Environment) and all kinds of extensible user experience services which including abundant graphics components, multimedia support functions and powerful browser. Therefore, Android platform is attractive for software developers. This paper will analysis and discuss that how to develop a set of software with comprehensive DAQ(Data Acquisition) and clouds processing function.

[43] Bluetooth-Based Android Interactive Applications for Smart Living:  

For smart living, interactive applications are increasingly important especially on interaction of people and the environment. In this work, a Bluetooth-based mobile sensor interactive application in Android was designed and implemented. An application framework of interactive applications is presented. The results show that animation view on the application changes along with the mobile sensor value. The power issue was also measured and concluded as extending handler timing to reduce the consumption.

[44] Mining Permission Request Patterns from Android and Facebook Applications:  

Android and Facebook provide third-party applications with access to users' private data and the ability to perform potentially sensitive operations (e.g., post to a user's wall or place phone calls). As a security measure, these platforms restrict applications' privileges with permission systems: users must approve the permissions requested by applications before the applications can make privacy-or security-relevant API calls. However, recent studies have shown that users often do not understand permission requests and are unsure of which permissions are typical for applications. As a first step towards simplifying permission systems, we cluster a corpus of 188,389 Android applications and 27,029 Facebook applications to find patterns in permission requests. Using a method for Boolean matrix factorization to find overlapping clusters of permissions, we find that Facebook permission requests follow a clear structure that can be fitted well with only five patterns, whereas Android applications demonstrate more complex permission requests. We also find that low-reputation applications often deviate from the permission request patterns that we identified for high-reputation applications, which suggests that permission request patterns can be indicative of user satisfaction or application quality.

[45] A profile-driven dynamic application offloading scheme for Android systems:  

Smart mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, are gaining strong demands recently with the advances in processors, memories, storages, communication networks, and software applications. However, due to their limited form factors and battery capacities, the current generation of smart mobile devices cannot yet fulfill the requirements of sophisticated applications. Leveraging a cloud service to offload the application workload can potentially overcome these limitations. In the paper, we enhance our previous works on mobile-cloud computing by extending the programming model on Android smart phones with a flow-based programming paradigm to provide more flexibility for application migration. For properly provisioning the resources and making smart decisions based on the performance gain, we add a profile-based policy manager and profiling service into our framework to enable a dynamic offload scheme.

[46] Malicious Android Applications in the Enterprise: What Do They Do and How Do We Fix It?:  

Android applications are used in a variety of domains, including business, social, media, health, scientific, and even military. On one hand, enterprises can take advantage of the richness of Android applications to support their business needs. On the other hand, Android devices contain rich sensitive data - e.g., GPS location, photos, calendar, contacts, email, and files - which is critical to the enterprise and unauthorized access to this sensitive data can lead to serious security risks. In this paper, we describe the nature and sources of sensitive data, what malicious applications can do to the data, and possible enterprise solutions to secure the data and mitigate the security risks. The purpose of this paper is to raise employees' and enterprises' awareness and show that a suite of easy-to-implement measures can improve both employee and enterprise security.

[47] Android-based universal vehicle diagnostic and tracking system:  

This system aims to provide a low-cost means of monitoring a vehicle's performance and tracking by communicating the obtained data to a mobile device via Bluetooth. Then the results can be viewed by the user to monitor fuel consumption and other vital vehicle electromechanical parameters. Data can also be sent to the vehicle's maintenance department which may be used to detect and predict faults in the vehicle. This is done by collecting live readings from the engine control unit (ECU) utilizing the vehicle's built in on-board diagnostics system (OBD). An electronic hardware unit is built to carry-out the interface between the vehicle's OBD system and a Bluetooth module, which in part communicates with an Android-based mobile device. The mobile device is capable of transmitting data to a server using cellular internet connection.

[48] Smartphone application for fault recognition :  

This system aims to provide a low-cost means of monitoring a vehicle's performance and tracking by communicating the obtained data to a mobile device via Bluetooth. Then the results can be viewed by the user to monitor fuel consumption and other vital vehicle electromechanical parameters. Data can also be sent to the vehicle's maintenance department which may be used to detect and predict faults in the vehicle. This is done by collecting live readings from the engine control unit (ECU) utilizing the vehicle's built in on-board diagnostics system (OBD). An electronic hardware unit is built to carry-out the interface between the vehicle's OBD system and a Bluetooth module, which in part communicates with an Android-based mobile device. The mobile device is capable of transmitting data to a server using cellular internet connection.

[49] Faster Translated Binary Execution on Mobile System through Virtualization: 

One of the challenges of the binary translation on virtual machine(VM) is to make a mapping from registers in emulated architecture to registers in the target architecture. The efficiency on the emulated architecture is best translated into efficiency on the target machine if target instructions also operated on register operands. However, conventional binary translators of popular VMs do not take into account instruction dependency among two or more basic blocks. This results in performance degradation due to inter-translation block dependency. Because binary translation makes use of 1 or 2 registers repeatedly for the majority of translation blocks. The translation block corresponds to a guest(emulated) instruction, which in turn the amount of work is not large. Even though there are no dependencies between translation blocks, false dependencies are generated by the repeated use of the same register usage order. In order to resolve the problem, we propose a novel approach maintaining two different register allocation orders, applying them alternatively. We call this as alternative register allocation in this paper. The experimental results show up to 26.3% better performance to conventional method.

[50] Enabling telecare assessment with pervasive sensing and Android OS smartphone: 

Measurements of vital signs and behavioral patterns can be translated into accurate predictors of health risk, even at an early stage, and can be combined with alarm-triggering systems in order to initiate the appropriate actions. The paper presents the design and implementation of a mobile TeleCare system based on a smart wrist-worn device with a non-obtrusive sensing module for cardiac, respiratory and motor activity, a microcontroller platform for primary processing of the data from the sensors and wireless communication using Bluetooth protocol. Advanced data processing, data management, human computing interfacing and data communication are implemented using a smartphone runningAndroid operating system (OS). A Web based health TeleCare information system was implemented being characterized by the following functionalities: data synchronization with the smartphone, advanced data processing and data presentation assuring a comprehensive data analysis and evidence based health management as well as for remote assistance of the patients by doctors and nurses. Experimental results associated with vital signs sensing and the software implementation are included in the paper.

More About Android Application

Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel with a user interface based on direct manipulation, designed primarily for touch screen mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers, with variations designed for the car, wrist, and television. The operating system uses touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching, and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects, and a virtual keyboard. Despite being primarily designed for touchscreen input, it also has been used in televisions, games consoles, digital cameras, and other electronics. As of 2011, Android has the largest installed base of any mobile OS and as of 2013, its devices also sell more than Windows, iOS and Mac OS devices combined. As of July 2013 the Google Play store has had over 1 million Android apps published, and over 50 billion apps downloaded. A developer survey conducted in April–May 2013 found that 71% of mobile developers develop for Android.Android's source code is released by Google under open source licenses, although most Android devices ultimately ship with a combination of open source and proprietary software. Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google backed financially and later bought in 2005,Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance—a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Android is popular with technology companies which require a ready-made, low-cost and customizable operating system for high-tech devices. Android's open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices which were officially released running other operating systems. The operating system's success has made it a target for patent litigation as part of the so-called "Smartphone wars" between technology companies. Android's default user interface is based on direct manipulation, using touch inputs, that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching, and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects, and a virtual keyboard. The response to user input is designed to be immediate and provides a fluid touch interface, often using the vibration capabilities of the device to provide haptic feedback to the user. Internal hardware such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented, or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel. Android devices boot to the home screen, the primary navigation and information point on the device, which is similar to the desktop found on PCs. Android home screens are typically made up of app icons and widgets; app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content such as the weather forecast, the user's email inbox, or a news ticker directly on the home screen. A home screen may be made up of several pages that the user can swipe back and forth between, though Android's home screen interface is heavily customisable, allowing the user to adjust the look and feel of the device to their tastes. Third-party apps available on Google Play and other app stores can extensively re-theme the home screen, and even mimic the look of other operating systems, such as Windows Phone. Most manufacturers, and some wireless carriers, customise the look and feel of their Android devices to differentiate themselves from their competitors. Present along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing information about the device and its connectivity. This status bar can be "pulled" down to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates, such as a newly received email or SMS text, in a way that does not immediately interrupt or inconvenience the user. Notifications are persistent until read (by tapping, which opens the relevant app) or dismissed by sliding it off the screen. Beginning on Android 4.1, "expanded notifications" can display expanded details or additional functionality; for instance, a music player can display playback controls, and a "missed call" notification provides buttons for calling back or sending the caller an SMS message. Android provides the ability to run applications which change the default launcher and hence the appearance and externally visible behaviour of Android. These appearance changes include a multi-page dock or no dock, and many more changes to fundamental features of the user interface.

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