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Integration of Wireless Sensor and Actuator Nodes with IT Infrastructure Using Service-Oriented Architecture

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IEEE TITLE:


Integration of Wireless Sensor and Actuator Nodes with IT Infrastructure Using Service-Oriented Architecture


IEEE ABSTRACT:


A large number of potential applications for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSAN) have yet to be embraced by industry despite high interest amongst academic researchers. This is due to various factors such as unpredictable costs related to development, deployment and maintenance of WSAN, especially when integration with existing IT infrastructure and legacy systems is needed. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is seen as a promising technique to bridge the gap between sensor nodes and enterprise applications such as factory monitoring, control, and tracking systems where sensor data is used. To date, research efforts have focused on middleware software systems located in gateway devices that implement standard service technology, such as Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS), for interacting with the sensor network. This paper takes a different approach—deploying interoperable Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)-based web services directly on the nodes and not using gateways. This strategy provides for easy integration with legacy IT systems and supports heterogeneity at the lowest level. Twofold analysis of the related overhead, which is the main challenge of this solution, is performed; Quantification of resource consumption as well as techniques to mitigate it are presented, along with latency measurements showing the impact of different parts of the system on system performance. A proof-of-concept application using Mulle—a resource-constrained sensor platform— is also presented.




SENSOR BASED ANDROID APPLICATION:



ABSTRACT:


Present sensor networks are meant to be designed for performing specific operations or to manipulate or to control specific business rule intensive applications which holds strongly coupled data communication protocols. In near future, the wireless sensor networks are envisioned in a new way of architectural design changes in which the entire architecture comprises heterogeneous devices assisting a large range of applications. Web Services associated with very strong business rules will surely bridge the gap between sensor nodes and multi service based applications which may be used in the field of factory monitoring/control and tracking systems where sensor data is really an important one. In the existing system, the analysis on unpredictable costs related to development, deployment and maintenance of WSAN, especially when integrating the legacy systems business rules with existing IT infrastructure is discussed in a wide manner. Our proposed system involves an additional functionality of activating the controls/web services through sensors Via an Android Mobile devices. In turn, the web service will perform its operation of serving the end users applications.



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Related URLs for reference:

[1] Design and development of an Android application to process and display summarised corporate data:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6381072&queryText%3Dandroid+application

In the corporate world today, managers are always faced with a lot of decisions to make based on data generated at their various offices. The decision-making process is very vital as decisions taken by management could make a company either overtake or stay within reach of its competitors. This paper presents the design and development of an Android application that would retrieve summarised data from a central database process and display that information on an android device so as to aid managers in their decision-making process. The components of designed and developed system include (1) a web application through which workers would input data at their various workplaces (2) a database hosted on a central server that would store information entered by workers (3) an application programming interface (API) that would take requests from the Android application, query the database and serve the results back to the Android application and (4) an Android application that processes and displays results to users. The Android application is developed using Eclipse in conjunction with android SDK tools. The application retrieves data from a database per user request and displays the retrieved information on an andeoid device. Users of this application would be able to analyse data quicker hence make quick decisions as they would not be drowned in a flood of detailed information. There is also an added benefit of having access to company data on the go.


[2] Requirements analysis of android application using activity theory: A case study:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6574563&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

Over the past few years, we can see the enormous increase of the use of smart phones that are based on android platform. Due to that reason, the mobile application development based on android has boosted the developers' interest. Having countless android application on the market is not an assurance of having users' satisfaction. Some of them do not reach users' expectations due to lack of research on dealing with android-based application requirements. With the fast growing of smart phones and their applications, the needs for better application to be produced are needed. Currently there is no specific research on analyzing the requirements for android applications. This paper proposes a new strategy that uses an activity theory to analyze the requirements of android application. It is then discusses a case study of a Muslim android application and presents the results of its requirements analysis using activity theory. The result of this study shows activity theory as an alternative requirement analysis approach to mobile application development that is based on android operating system.


[3]The method of android application speed up by using NDK:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6163104&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

The Android platform is one of the most popular used embedded OS, is mounted on robot, TVs, especially on Smart phones. Because general android applications are developed by the JAVA language, it is very slow in case which requires many calculation operations such as image processing. To overcome these defects, the Android OS is supporting JNI with the Android NDK, which makes available to use the C libraries in the android at application level. Through NDK, the Android applications can approach hardware and is able to developed high speed application. In this paper, we consider that how to enhance performance of the JAVA applications by using the Android NDK. We compared original NyARToolKit, which is augmented reality engine, with the improved NyARToolKit using the NDK. Through this experiment, we confirmed that android application programmers can make their application efficiently by using the NDK. We could increase speed of NyARToolKit by 1.869 times in our experiment. This paper presents a guideline for an effective way to use native code libraries in Android applications.


[4]AASMP - Android Application Server for Mobile Platforms:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6755280&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

This paper presents the development of an Android Application Server for Mobile Platforms (AASMP). It is motivated by the widespread cloud computing and the popularity of mobile platforms, such as smart phones and tablet computers, running Android system. The main purposes of developing this AASMP include: to allow deploying Android applications on a server to be accessed by client-side users, not necessarily operating an Android platform, through a browser software without installing any plug-in modules, to support offloading the execution of existing Android applications to powerful server-side environment with neither modifying nor porting needed, to lay a foundation for developing server-side Android applications or services which are provided with the resources normally limited on mobile platforms. AASMP fully supports Android applications and, when client-side platform is installed a device management daemon, it is capable of accessing motion sensing devices that are commonly equipped on mobile platforms. In addition, AASMP is built with a connection manager in order to concurrently serve two or more clients. Performance evaluation showed acceptable results although data transmission and networking may incur cost or overheads. AASMP therefore may serve as one demonstrating example in providing mobile platforms an alternative to remote access and sharing application programs.


[5] Benchmarking Java application using JNI and native C application on Android:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6393447&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

Android is one of the most widely spread mobile platform. Many people are using Android mobile devices and many developers are creating Android applications at this moment. When developing applications, the differences in performance between Java and C/C++ are a well-known issue. Because this is also true in Android, many Android application developers prefer to use the Android NDK along with Java compared to using only Java language. However, there are certain performance gaps in not only using different programming languages but also in using glibc of a native cross-compiler and bionic libc of the Android NDK. In this paper, we show the difference in performance between Android applications compiled by using a native cross-compiler for ARM and a native shared library through the JNI of the Android NDK. We used Mibench, a representative embedded benchmark suite that can be used freely with no restrictions. As a result, it was found that using the native shared library through the JNI of the Android NDK is faster compared to using the native cross-compiler for ARM in five of six cases.


[6]The Android Application Development College Challenge:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6332383&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

Since mobile devices have become more and more powerful and distributive, mobile computing has greatly changed our daily life. As one of the most popular mobile operating systems, Android provides the tools and API for Android developer to develop Android applications. The Android application development college challenge is a influential Android developer contest for college students in China. This contest has been held for two times since 2010. It encourages college students to design and implement their applications on the Android platform. In this way, it gives the students an opportunity to show their creativity and learn about the development of Android applications. The influence of the contest is keeping increasing, and students from more universities and regions take part in the contest. In this paper we introduce the organization of such a contest.


[7] Creating Pervasive, Dynamic, Scalable Android Applications:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6603648&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

Smart mobile devices and wireless networks have reshaped the way people execute applications and access information. Many of today's mobile applications are programmed to rely on cloud services to augment the execution of sophisticated tasks with the assumption that the smart phone does not have enough computational resources to handle the tasks in time. However, the current application development model has several shortcomings. First, it can be difficult for a developer to decide how to partition a mobile application if the application workload cannot be known in advance and will be performed by a wide range of devices. Second, to get an application augmented, the application user is required to subscribe to a service, which causes additional efforts and privacy risks. Third, a mobile application that relies on the support of the server-side can suffer seriously from poor network connectivity. The work described in this paper enhances the current Android application framework to address the aforementioned shortcomings. First, we introduce the notion of personal application cloud (PAC), which is a unified service that the user can use to augment many applications without revealing personal data to the application vendors. Then, we provide an application programming interface and runtime support for the developers to create pervasive, scalable Android applications whose execution and data can be dynamically migrated and scaled to benefit from PAC. In addition to the design and implementation of the enhanced framework, latest experimental results are presented as well.


[8] An Android Application Sandbox system for suspicious software detection:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5665792&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

Smart phones are steadily gaining popularity, creating new application areas as their capabilities increase in terms of computational power, sensors and communication. Emerging new features of mobile devices give opportunity to new threats. Android is one of the newer operating systems targeting smart phones. While being based on a Linux kernel, Android has unique properties and specific limitations due to its mobile nature. This makes it harder to detect and react upon malware attacks if using conventional techniques. In this paper, we propose an Android Application Sandbox (AA Sandbox) which is able to perform both static and dynamic analysis on Android programs to automatically detect suspicious applications. Static analysis scans the software for malicious patterns without installing it. Dynamic analysis executes the application in a fully isolated environment, i.e. sandbox, which intervenes and logs low-level interactions with the system for further analysis. Both the sandbox and the detection algorithms can be deployed in the cloud, providing a fast and distributed detection of suspicious software in a mobile software store akin to Google's Android Market. Additionally, AA Sandbox might be used to improve the efficiency of classical anti-virus applications available for the Android operating system.


[9] An Android application launch analyzing system:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6268473&queryText%3Dandroid+application  

Android is applied on various devices such as smart phone, tablet PC, and music players, and its users are increasing year by year. However, Android is still developing. Its performance is not enough, and performance analyzing environment has not been developed. Thus, its performance cannot be discussed well. Especially, application launching performance has not been analyzed enough even so it is one of the important performances for users. One reason for this is that Android has a specialized launching procedure. In this paper, we focus on application launch performance, with the goal of realizing their detailed analysis. Specifically, we propose a system that enables a profound investigation of an application launch procedure by modifying the Android system to capture events in the kernel and application frameworks associated with the application launch. Our evaluation with our implementation demonstrated that the proposed system could clearly point the time-consuming processes out and served to profoundly analyze performance.


[10] Automated Static Code Analysis for Classifying Android Applications Using Machine Learning::


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5696292&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

In this paper we apply Machine Learning (ML) techniques on static features that are extracted from Android's application files for the classification of the files. Features are extracted from Android's Java byte-code (i.e.,. dex files) and other file types such as XML-files. Our evaluation focused on classifying two types of Android applications: tools and games. Successful differentiation between games and tools is expected to provide positive indication about the ability of such methods to learn and model Android benign applications and potentially detect malware files. The results of an evaluation, performed using a test collection comprising 2,285 Android .apk files, indicate that features, extracted statically from .apk files, coupled with ML classification algorithms can provide good indication about the nature of an Android application without running the application, and may assist in detecting malicious applications. This method can be used for rapid examination of Android .apks and informing of suspicious applications.


[11] Automatic detection of inter-application permission leaks in Android applications:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6665098&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

The Android operating system builds upon already well-established permission systems but complements them by allowing application components to be reused within and across applications through a single communication mechanism, called the Intent mechanism. In this paper, we describe techniques that we developed for statically detecting Android application vulnerability to attacks that obtain unauthorized access to permission-protected information. We address three kinds of such attacks, known as confused deputy, permission collusion, and Intent spoofing. We show that application vulnerability to these attacks can be detected using taint analysis. Based on this technique, we developed Permission Flow, a tool for discovering vulnerabilities in the byte code and configuration of Android applications. To enable Permission Flow analysis, we developed a static technique for automatic identification of permission-protected information sources in permission-based systems. This technique identifies application programming interfaces (APIs) whose execution leads to permission checking and considers these APIs to be sources of taint. Based on this approach, we developed Permission Mapper, a component of Permission Flow that improves on previous work by performing fully automatic identification of such APIs for Android Java® code. Our automated analysis of popular applications found that 56% of the most popular 313 Android applications actively use inter component information flows. Among the tested applications, Permission Flow found four exploitable vulnerabilities. By helping ensure the absence of inter-application permission leaks, we believe that the proposed analysis will be highly beneficial to the Android ecosystem and other mobile platforms that may use similar analyses in the future.


[12] Research on Development of Android Applications:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6104696&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

Introduced the Android platform and the features of Android applications, gave a detailed description ofAndroid application framework from the prospective of developers. A simple music player is provided as instance to illustrate the basic working processes of Android application components. This paper could provide guidance to understanding the operation mechanism of Android applications and to developingapplications on Android platform.


[13] Design and development of Android mobile application for students of engineering education in Saudi Arabia:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6636379&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

The main objective of this research paper is to propose a mobile solution for those students who are registered with senior design project capstone course of bachelor engineering technology program of Yanbu Industrial College (YIC), Saudi Arabia. During the process of registration, the students like to choose those projects supervisors who are flexible and committed to them for successful completion of their project at the end of the semester. The supervisor is made to be responsible for handling all the tasks of the project which includes but not limited to the selection of title, methodology, budgeting, analysis and successful tests of the project. Subsequently, the students completely rely on the supervisor and remain unable to learn engineering project management tools and techniques. On the other hand, the advisor remains extensively under pressure and becomes a sandwich between a students and management. To discourage the student's above mentioned attitude towards learning; a mobile application has been designed, developed and tested for android platform. The paper describes the step by step design and development techniques process of m- research application which can be utilized as an integral component of m learning model of engineering education in Saudi Arabia for senior design project anytime and anywhere.


[14] A Proposal to Realize the Provision of Secure Android Applications -- ADMS: An Application Development and Management System:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6296936&queryText%3Dandroid+application  

To realize the provision of secure Android applications, this paper proposes an application development and management system, or ADMS for short, that is operated and maintained by application developers and the market manager. ADMS requires (i) Android OS to be equipped with a "security manager", (ii) all application developers to embed a code for event notification into applications to tell every event to the security manager whenever an application launches a security-related event, and (iii) market manager to remove all such applications that don't include the event notification code.


[15] Analysis of Android Applications' Permissions:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6258449&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

We developed an architecture that automatically searches for and downloads Android applications from the Android Market. Furthermore, we created a detailed mapping of Android application programming interface (API) calls to the required permission(s), if any, for each call. We then performed an analysis of 141,372 Android applications to determine if they have the appropriate set of permissions based on the static analysis of the APK byte code of each application. Our findings indicate that the majority of mobile software developers are not using the correct permission set and that they either over-specify or under-specify their security requirements.


[16] A Neural network approach to category validation of Android applications:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6504180&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

Permission structure of Android applications introduces security vulnerabilities which can be readily exploited by third-party applications. We address certain exploitability aspects by means of neural networks, effective classification techniques capable of verifying the application categories. We devise a novel methodology to verify an application category by machine-learning the application permissions and estimating likelihoods of the extant categories. The performance of our classifier is optimized through the joint minimization of false positive and negative rates. Applying our modus operandi to 1,700 popular third-party Android applications and malwares, a major portion of the category declarations were judged truthfully. This manifests effectiveness of neural network decision engines in validating Android application categories


[17] EpSMART: Epileptic seizure monitoring with alerts in real time: A tablet-based Android application for a real-time multi-modal seizure detection system:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6470282&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

In this paper, we present a work in progress of a novel tablet-based Android application for a multi-modal seizure detection system platform. We first provide an overview of the multi-modality platform and then detail the usage of the Android application, including a description of its features. We then present preliminary results of the platform's holistic performance, including the app.


[18] Performance analysis for improved RAM utilization for Android applications:


hhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6349500&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

Memory management is a vital parameter in efficient working of any operating system. In the mobile devices, internal memory plays an important role in managing the running of process, services andapplications which are either installed by the user or which are already present in the device. Thus this paper aims towards giving an approach for better utilization of the internal memory present in Androidoperating system for mobile phones. The memory architecture for the Android device has been studied and has been observed that the device comes loaded with many applications which require high RAM consumption for efficient working. Thus taking into consideration running of so many applications processes and services, it is important to efficiently use and manage the internal memory space present inside the mobile operating system. For this purpose, a dictionary based application called SMS Lingo has been developed for compression of SMS texting. This application requires less memory space and less RAM consumption as compared to the default SMS messaging service provided by Android. Memory management of Android system has been compared with the one in Linux System. It has been observed that Mapped Memory, Anonymous Memory and Slab Memory is present in Android which is used for allotting temporary storage space for the data frequently used.


[19] A GUI Crawling-Based Technique for Android Mobile Application Testing:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5954416&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

As mobile applications become more complex, specific development tools and frameworks as well as cost effective testing techniques and tools will be essential to assure the development of secure, high-quality mobile applications. This paper addresses the problem of automatic testing of mobileapplications developed for the Google Android platform, and presents a technique for rapid crash testing and regression testing of Android applications. The technique is based on a crawler that automatically builds a model of the application GUI and obtains test cases that can be automatically executed. The technique is supported by a tool for both crawling the application and generating the test cases. In the paper we present an example of using the technique and the tool for testing a real small size Androidapplication that preliminary shows the effectiveness and usability of the proposed testing approach.


[20] Experiences of System-Level Model-Based GUI Testing of an Android Application:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5770627&queryText%3Dandroid+application 

This paper presents experiences in model-based graphical user interface testing of Androidapplications. We present how model-based testing and test automation was implemented with Android, including how applications were modeled, how tests were designed and executed, and what kind of problems were found in the tested application during the whole process. The main focus is on a case study that was performed with an Android application, the BBC News Widget. Our goal is to present actual data on the experiences and to discuss if advantages can be gained using model-based testing when compared with traditional graphical user interface testing. Another contribution of this paper is a description of a keyword-based test automation tool that was implemented for the Android emulator during the case study. All the models and the tools created or used in this case study are available as open source.


[21] Email client application with rabbit algorithm for Android smart phone:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6366037&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

This paper explains the implementation of Rabbit algorithm in email application to secure email content on Android smart phone. This particular email client uses Rabbit algorithm to encrypt and decrypt confidential email's content. This application can be used to create, edit, send, retrieve, and read a simple email. Email client is built for Android smart phone by using Java. The experiments prove that by using Google Mail service this application can be used as simple email client with secured content feature.


[22] Application-aware group scheduler for Android:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6814701&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

Modern multi-core processors propose new cache management challenges (more cache conflicts and misses) due to the subtle interactions of simultaneously executing processes sharing on-chip resources. To address this issue, thread group scheduling scheme that cluster threads with high sharing cache as one group to schedule has been proposed. It has led to numerous academic and industrial attentions. However, by analyzing the programming model of Android which account for a large and increasing fraction of operating system of multi-core smart phones, we find it may be unacceptable for numerous interactive applications since previous scheduling works may cause the terrible response time and directly bring an awful user experience. In order to reduce cache competitions while improving application's response time, we present an application-aware group scheduler (AGS) whose key idea is to adopt a thread group scheduling scheme to partition current running application's threads into one group and give each thread a fair chance to occupy CPU time. We implement AGS on practical hardware running a real Android operating system. The results show that our proposed scheduler can improve performance from different parameters while keeping system fairness, which reduces 3.2% in cache miss rate, 5.5% in response time, 5.3% in data cache (D-Cache) misses and 2.5% in instruction cache (I-Cache) misses to the maximum extent.


[23] Acceleration and Orientation Multi sensor Pedometer Application Design and Implementation on the Android Platform:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6154047&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

This paper presents an Android platform's pedometer application design which uses SOLite database to provide the historical data query function and bases on the acceleration sensor and the orientation sensor. This paper first introduces the background of the application and the principle of Android platform pedometer. In addition, it also analyzes and compares the different design between the single acceleration sensor pedometer and the multi-sensor pedometer, which proves the advantage of this design. And then, on this basis, this paper describes three main functions' designs which are step count function, history query function and health test function. This paper also describes the implementation and results of this application design and proves the design's feasibility and correctnes.


[24] Database refactoring and regression testing of Android mobile applications:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6339502&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

The widespread usage of mobile devices has made rapid progress recently in the society. The gradual development, modification and improvement of mobile applications is a rule. This contribution presents the application of refactoring and regression testing, which supports the software modification in a systematic and controlled manner. The database refactoring and regression testing is presented within the development of an experimental mobile Android-based application. Finally, the contribution evaluates the results of the experiments and verifies their correctness.


[25] Android-based exercise application:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6297191&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

This research focuses on developing an Android-based mobile phone prototype to calculate and determine the duration of physical exercise, time to exercise and the types of exercise needed daily by the user. The factors that will be used in the calculation of the algorithm are BMI (Body Mass Index) of the user, user's body condition and working hours. Rule-based algorithm was used in this application to suggest their exercise schedule. Further and long term study is necessary to see the effectiveness, perceived usefulness and usability of this system.


[26] Systematic testing for resource leaks in Android applications :


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6698894&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

The use of mobile devices and the complexity of their software continue to grow rapidly. This growth presents significant challenges for software correctness and performance. In addition to traditional defects, a key consideration are defects related to the limited resources available on these devices. Resource leaks in an application, due to improper management of resources, can lead to slowdowns, crashes, and negative user experience. Despite a large body of existing work on leak detection, testing for resource leaks remains a challenging problem. We propose a novel and comprehensive approach for systematic testing for resource leaks in Android software. Similar to existing testing techniques, the approach is based on a GUI model, but is focused specifically on coverage criteria aimed at resource leak defects. These criteria are based on neutral cycles: sequences of GUI events that should have a “neutral” effect and should not lead to increases in resource usage. Several important categories of neutral cycles are considered in the proposed test coverage criteria. Experimental evaluation and case studies were performed on eight Android applications. The approach exposed 18 resource leak defects, 12 of which were previously unknown. These results provide motivation for future work on analysis, testing, and prevention of resource leaks in Android software.


[27] Energy optimization in Android applications through wakelock placement:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6800302&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

Energy efficiency is a critical factor in mobile systems, and a significant body of recent research efforts has focused on reducing the energy dissipation in mobile hardware and applications. The Android OS Power Manager provides programming interface routines called wakelocks for controlling the activation state of devices on a mobile system. An appropriate placement of wakelock acquire and release functions in the application can make a significant difference to the energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a data flow analysis based strategy for determining the placement of wakelock statements corresponding to the uses of devices in an application. Our experimental evaluation on a set of Android applications show significant (up to 32%) energy savings with the proposed optimization strategy.


[28] The development and application of sensor based on Android:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6269263&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

This article presents the 3D maze game of gravity which employs the OpenGL ES rendering engine to make it possible. It introduces the development and application of the built-in sensor of mobile phone onAndroid platform, the whole process of developing Android applications with Eclipse. The purpose of this research is to show the availability of the built-in sensors of the mobile phone based on Android.


[29] Application Policy Security Mechanisms of Android System :


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6332392&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

This article describes the basic structure of the Android and mobile devices on the application environment. A preliminary analysis of the Android security control structure and sandbox model are presented. We describe the features of Java security model. Mobile code security enhancements in Java are also discussed briefly. The policy-based sandbox code access security is designed to apply special policy on application individually in runtime.


[30] Integration of communication services for Android-based set-top box applications:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6419534&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

This paper presents a developed application which integrates new communication capabilities of set top boxes running Android OS. The application is a game showing its content overlaid on top of the television program whereas Android mobile devices are used as controllers. The performance of theapplication is tested by measuring the speed of the various communication devices and by analyzing feedback from a selected group of users.


[31] Implementation of an Android based teleportation application for controlling a KUKA-KR6 robot by using sensor fusion:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6568286&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

Teleoperated systems have been used in diverse biomedical applications, from the rehabilitation of patients, the management of biological hazardous material and medication storage, to minimally invasive surgery. This paper, introduces an Android OS (operating system) based application that communicates with an industrial robot Kuka KR-6 through USB to Serial connection, to control it with the on-board accelerometers, and gyroscopes of a tablet or Smartphone, intended to be used in telemedicine procedures. Arduino Uno microcontroller board, RS232 Shifter SMD and mobile device were used to develop this work. To evaluate this system a survey was done with engineering related users.


[32] Detecting GPS information leakage in Android applications:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6831175&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

Location Based Service(LBS) becomes very popular in mobile computing platforms, such as Android. However, it could also leak highly personal information about the phone owner if used by Malwares. It has been witnessed that an increased number of malicious Android applications use LBS to obtain users' locations and transmit them to attackers without users' acknowledgement, causing users' privacy breach. In this paper, we first discuss the common way in which privacy can be breached inAndroid applications, and then define a classification algorithm for GPS information leakage. Furthermore, we develop a location information leakage detection tool named Brox. Brox is based on dalvik-opcode specification, which uses data flow analysis framework equipped with flow-sensitive, context-sensitive, and inter-procedure techniques to detect potential information leakage path in Androidmalicious applications. Specifically, Brox uses inter-procedure analysis and dependency calculation to understand the intention for each sensitive operation; by using reachable analysis, connection between privacy access operation and leakage operation is established. More importantly, Brox confirms whether the sending out operation contains location information or not using static taint analysis. At last, we classify the detection results with the help of identification of interaction and non-user interaction entry points in order to discover stealthy leaks of GPS location. The extensive experiments results show that the proposed method can effectively detect privacy leakage in Android applications with a high accuracy rate.


[33] Developing an Android based learning application for mobile devices:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6218028&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

This paper is about the development of MLEA, a platform that assists, through Android cellphones and tablets, the mobility of users of learning virtual environments. MLEA is an application that implements computational techniques such as web services, design patterns, ontologies, and mobile computational techniques in order to allow the communication between mobile devices and the content management system - Moodle. It's based on a service oriented, client server architecture that combines the REST protocol and JSON format for data interchange. The client will be provided with features for alerts, file downloads, chats and forums, grade books, quizzes, and calendar, among others.


[34] Extending Google Android's Application as an Educational Tool:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5463738&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

This paper introduces how to extend Google android platform as a game development tool to learn software architecture based on the double stimulation method. It starts with the motivation to choose the android platform since most of students in software architecture course from NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) have experiences of using java and eclipse platform before they starts this course. And then it describes the design and construct of extended android platform, called ¿Sheep¿ framework. Further, it presents the application of the Sheep framework as second stimulus means integrated in the game exercises in the software architecture course. Finally, the paper discusses the contribution from the aspects of technology, game ideas and pedagogy.


[35] Smartphone Dual Defense Protection Framework: Detecting Malicious Applications in Android Markets:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5463738&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

In this paper, we present a smart phone dual defense protection framework that allows Official and Alternative Android Markets to detect malicious applications among those new applications that are submitted for public release. Our framework consists of servers running on clouds where developers who wish to release their new applications can upload their software for verification purpose. The verification server first uses system call statistics to identify potential malicious applications. After verification, if the software is clean, the application will then be released to the relevant markets. To mitigate against false negative cases, users who run new applications can invoke our network traffic monitoring (NTM)tool which triggers network traffic capture upon detecting some suspicious behaviors e.g. detecting sensitive data being sent to output stream of an open socket. The network traffic will be analyzed to see if it matches network characteristics observed from malware applications. If suspicious network traffic is observed, the relevant Android markets will be notified tore move the application from the repository. We trained our system call and network traffic classifiers using 32 families of knownAndroid malware families and some typical normal applications. Later, we evaluated our framework using other malware and normal applications that used in the training set. Our experimental results using 120 test applications (which consist of 50 malware and 70 normal applications) indicate that we can achieve a 94.2% and 99.2% accuracy with J.48 and Random forest classifier respectively using our framework.


[36] Performance and Energy Consumption Analysis of Embedded Applications Based on Android Platform:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6473633&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

This paper presents an analysis of embedded applications based on Android Platform. Analyzing performance and energy consumption from different algorithmic versions this work tries to find a performance and energy pattern for the paradigm used in each used algorithm. Thus, the developer can select the best algorithm version for each application based on the requirements. Android is a Linux based mobile operating system developed by Google in conjunction with the Open Handset Alliance. Nowadays, Android is the world's leading smart phone platform. The Android Platform provides a rich development environment (SDK) including an API, development and debug tool and so on. However, during the development process it is necessary to handle with the system functionalities and it must at the same time help the handling of the embedded systems tight constraints, like performance, energy and power. This paper shows some performance and energy consumption results for a set ofapplications using different algorithmic versions.


[37]Traffic Condition Information Extraction & Visualization from Social Media Twitter for Android Mobile Application:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6021743&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

Traffic jam in Jakarta, Indonesia has become a crucial problem for the society. A Traffic Management Center has been built by the police, in this case Polda Metro Jaya to help people to get the latest information regarding traffic jam. Twitter has been used by TMC Polda Metro Jaya to spread the news of traffic. With its limitations, Twitter doesn't provide good user interface in the case of traffic condition. In this paper, information extraction technique is used to get the data of traffic, so that the traffic information can be presented in map view as a mobile application of Android. Natural Language Processing can be used to extract information from a tweet. A tweet will be tokenized, then each of the token will be assigned to a particular part-of-speech tag while analyzing the sentence by using rule based approach. Based on the rules, information of traffic can be extracted in the form of template which consist of time, origin, destination and condition. By using Google Map, the extracted information will be presented in 3 different colors for 3 different levels of traffic condition. Early experiment with limited vocabulary and rules has showed promising result.


[38] Design of authenticity evaluation metric for Android applications:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6821695&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

For enforcing security, Android platform uses authorizing g system which grants permission per application at install-time. With authorized privilege, user applications can modify and delete user's personal information. Therefore, inspection of granted permission usage can be used to detect security vulnerabilities. ISO/IEC 25 010 defines software product security characteristic and provides guidelines to evaluate software product quality. Among sub-characteristics of security, Authenticity is related to Android permission sys tem. In this paper, we present authenticity metric for android application. This metric can quantify the permission usage of application and measured information can be used to classify the malware applications. To verify the applicability of metric, we perform evaluate ion to benign and malware application and compare its results.


[39] Design of authenticity evaluation metric for Android applications:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6821695&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

For enforcing security, Android platform uses authorizing g system which grants permission per application at install-time. With authorized privilege, user applications can modify and delete us er's personal information. Therefore, inspection of granted permission usage can be used to detect security vulnerabilities. ISO/IEC 25 010 defines software product security characteristic and provides guidelines to evaluate software product quality. Among sub-characteristics of security, Authenticity is related to Android permission sys tem. In this paper, we present authenticity metric for android application. This metric can quantify the permission usage of application and measured information can be used to classify the malware applications. To verify the applicability of metric, we perform evaluation to benign and malware application and compare its results.


[40]Semantically Rich Application-Centric Security in Android :


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5380692&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

Smartphone’s are now ubiquitous. However, the security requirements of these relatively new systems and the applications they support are still being understood. As a result, the security infrastructure available in current Smartphone operating systems is largely underdeveloped. In this paper, we consider the security requirements of Smartphone applications and augment the existing Android operating system with a framework to meet them. We present Secure Application Interaction (Saint), a modified infrastructure that governs install-time permission assignment and their run-time use as dictated by application provider policy. An in-depth description of the semantics of application policy is presented. The architecture and technical detail of Saint is given, and areas for extension, optimization, and improvement explored. As we show through concrete example, Saint provides necessary utility for applications to assert and control the security decisions on the platform.


[41] A Model Driven Approach for Android Applications Development:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6473661&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

The mobile application development industry is increasingly growing up due to the intensive use ofapplications in mobile devices, most of them running Android Operating System. However, developing applications for mobile platforms demands additional worries such as code efficiency, interaction with device resources, as well as short time-to-market. Model-driven engineering (MDE) combined with UML, as already used in software engineering , could provide abstraction and automation for mobile software developers. To support that, adequate tools and approaches are required. This paper presents a MDE approach for Android applications development, which includes UML-based modelling and code generation in order to facilitate and accelerate the development of mobile applications.


[42] Data Acquisition Terminal Application Design and Development Based on the Android Platform:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6376536&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

Google launched a new Android smart phone with the open source operating system when the smart phone system at the disputes. It uses Linux Core, and the members of OHA(Open Handset Alliance) can use and modify SDK bag at will, which open source of system makes it good expanding. This phone takes all software that smart phone needs when working, including operating system, user interface and application. The most outstanding characteristic of Android is the open system framework with good IDE(Integrated Development Environment) and all kinds of extensible user experience services which including abundant graphics components, multimedia support functions and powerful browser. Therefore, Android platform is attractive for software developers. This paper will analysis and discuss that how to develop a set of software with comprehensive DAQ(Data Acquisition) and clouds processing function.


[43] Bluetooth-Based Android Interactive Applications for Smart Living:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6118784&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

For smart living, interactive applications are increasingly important especially on interaction of people and the environment. In this work, a Bluetooth-based mobile sensor interactive application in Android was designed and implemented. An application framework of interactive applications is presented. The results show that animation view on the application changes along with the mobile sensor value. The power issue was also measured and concluded as extending handler timing to reduce the consumption.


[44] Mining Permission Request Patterns from Android and Facebook Applications:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6413840&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

Android and Facebook provide third-party applications with access to users' private data and the ability to perform potentially sensitive operations (e.g., post to a user's wall or place phone calls). As a security measure, these platforms restrict applications' privileges with permission systems: users must approve the permissions requested by applications before the applications can make privacy-or security-relevant API calls. However, recent studies have shown that users often do not understand permission requests and are unsure of which permissions are typical for applications. As a first step towards simplifying permission systems, we cluster a corpus of 188,389 Android applications and 27,029 Facebook applications to find patterns in permission requests. Using a method for Boolean matrix factorization to find overlapping clusters of permissions, we find that Facebook permission requests follow a clear structure that can be fitted well with only five patterns, whereas Android applications demonstrate more complex permission requests. We also find that low-reputation applications often deviate from the permission request patterns that we identified for high-reputation applications, which suggests that permission request patterns can be indicative of user satisfaction or application quality.


[45] A profile-driven dynamic application offloading scheme for Android systems:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6379903&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

Smart mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, are gaining strong demands recently with the advances in processors, memories, storages, communication networks, and software applications. However, due to their limited form factors and battery capacities, the current generation of smart mobile devices cannot yet fulfill the requirements of sophisticated applications. Leveraging a cloud service to offload the application workload can potentially overcome these limitations. In the paper, we enhance our previous works on mobile-cloud computing by extending the programming model on Android smart phones with a flow-based programming paradigm to provide more flexibility for application migration. For properly provisioning the resources and making smart decisions based on the performance gain, we add a profile-based policy manager and profiling service into our framework to enable a dynamic offload scheme.


[46] Malicious Android Applications in the Enterprise: What Do They Do and How Do We Fix It?:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6313688&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

Android applications are used in a variety of domains, including business, social, media, health, scientific, and even military. On one hand, enterprises can take advantage of the richness of Android applications to support their business needs. On the other hand, Android devices contain rich sensitive data - e.g., GPS location, photos, calendar, contacts, email, and files - which is critical to the enterprise and unauthorized access to this sensitive data can lead to serious security risks. In this paper, we describe the nature and sources of sensitive data, what malicious applications can do to the data, and possible enterprise solutions to secure the data and mitigate the security risks. The purpose of this paper is to raise employees' and enterprises' awareness and show that a suite of easy-to-implement measures can improve both employee and enterprise security.


[47] Android-based universal vehicle diagnostic and tracking system:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6305105&pageNumber%3D64%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

This system aims to provide a low-cost means of monitoring a vehicle's performance and tracking by communicating the obtained data to a mobile device via Bluetooth. Then the results can be viewed by the user to monitor fuel consumption and other vital vehicle electromechanical parameters. Data can also be sent to the vehicle's maintenance department which may be used to detect and predict faults in the vehicle. This is done by collecting live readings from the engine control unit (ECU) utilizing the vehicle's built in on-board diagnostics system (OBD). An electronic hardware unit is built to carry-out the interface between the vehicle's OBD system and a Bluetooth module, which in part communicates with an Android-based mobile device. The mobile device is capable of transmitting data to a server using cellular internet connection.


[48] Smartphone application for fault recognition :


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6305105&pageNumber%3D64%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application  

This system aims to provide a low-cost means of monitoring a vehicle's performance and tracking by communicating the obtained data to a mobile device via Bluetooth. Then the results can be viewed by the user to monitor fuel consumption and other vital vehicle electromechanical parameters. Data can also be sent to the vehicle's maintenance department which may be used to detect and predict faults in the vehicle. This is done by collecting live readings from the engine control unit (ECU) utilizing the vehicle's built in on-board diagnostics system (OBD). An electronic hardware unit is built to carry-out the interface between the vehicle's OBD system and a Bluetooth module, which in part communicates with an Android-based mobile device. The mobile device is capable of transmitting data to a server using cellular internet connection.


[49] Faster Translated Binary Execution on Mobile System through Virtualization:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6838701&pageNumber%3D64%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

One of the challenges of the binary translation on virtual machine(VM) is to make a mapping from registers in emulated architecture to registers in the target architecture. The efficiency on the emulated architecture is best translated into efficiency on the target machine if target instructions also operated on register operands. However, conventional binary translators of popular VMs do not take into account instruction dependency among two or more basic blocks. This results in performance degradation due to inter-translation block dependency. Because binary translation makes use of 1 or 2 registers repeatedly for the majority of translation blocks. The translation block corresponds to a guest(emulated) instruction, which in turn the amount of work is not large. Even though there are no dependencies between translation blocks, false dependencies are generated by the repeated use of the same register usage order. In order to resolve the problem, we propose a novel approach maintaining two different register allocation orders, applying them alternatively. We call this as alternative register allocation in this paper. The experimental results show up to 26.3% better performance to conventional method.


[50] Enabling telecare assessment with pervasive sensing and Android OS smartphone:


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5966761&pageNumber%3D64%26queryText%3DAndroid+Application 

Measurements of vital signs and behavioral patterns can be translated into accurate predictors of health risk, even at an early stage, and can be combined with alarm-triggering systems in order to initiate the appropriate actions. The paper presents the design and implementation of a mobile TeleCare system based on a smart wrist-worn device with a non-obtrusive sensing module for cardiac, respiratory and motor activity, a microcontroller platform for primary processing of the data from the sensors and wireless communication using Bluetooth protocol. Advanced data processing, data management, human computing interfacing and data communication are implemented using a smartphone runningAndroid operating system (OS). A Web based health TeleCare information system was implemented being characterized by the following functionalities: data synchronization with the smartphone, advanced data processing and data presentation assuring a comprehensive data analysis and evidence based health management as well as for remote assistance of the patients by doctors and nurses. Experimental results associated with vital signs sensing and the software implementation are included in the paper.


More About Android Application


Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel with a user interface based on direct manipulation, designed primarily for touch screen mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers, with variations designed for the car, wrist, and television. The operating system uses touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching, and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects, and a virtual keyboard. Despite being primarily designed for touchscreen input, it also has been used in televisions, games consoles, digital cameras, and other electronics. As of 2011, Android has the largest installed base of any mobile OS and as of 2013, its devices also sell more than Windows, iOS and Mac OS devices combined. As of July 2013 the Google Play store has had over 1 million Android apps published, and over 50 billion apps downloaded. A developer survey conducted in April–May 2013 found that 71% of mobile developers develop for Android.Android's source code is released by Google under open source licenses, although most Android devices ultimately ship with a combination of open source and proprietary software. Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google backed financially and later bought in 2005,Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance—a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Android is popular with technology companies which require a ready-made, low-cost and customizable operating system for high-tech devices. Android's open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices which were officially released running other operating systems. The operating system's success has made it a target for patent litigation as part of the so-called "Smartphone wars" between technology companies. Android's default user interface is based on direct manipulation, using touch inputs, that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching, and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects, and a virtual keyboard. The response to user input is designed to be immediate and provides a fluid touch interface, often using the vibration capabilities of the device to provide haptic feedback to the user. Internal hardware such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented, or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel. Android devices boot to the home screen, the primary navigation and information point on the device, which is similar to the desktop found on PCs. Android home screens are typically made up of app icons and widgets; app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content such as the weather forecast, the user's email inbox, or a news ticker directly on the home screen. A home screen may be made up of several pages that the user can swipe back and forth between, though Android's home screen interface is heavily customisable, allowing the user to adjust the look and feel of the device to their tastes. Third-party apps available on Google Play and other app stores can extensively re-theme the home screen, and even mimic the look of other operating systems, such as Windows Phone. Most manufacturers, and some wireless carriers, customise the look and feel of their Android devices to differentiate themselves from their competitors. Present along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing information about the device and its connectivity. This status bar can be "pulled" down to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates, such as a newly received email or SMS text, in a way that does not immediately interrupt or inconvenience the user. Notifications are persistent until read (by tapping, which opens the relevant app) or dismissed by sliding it off the screen. Beginning on Android 4.1, "expanded notifications" can display expanded details or additional functionality; for instance, a music player can display playback controls, and a "missed call" notification provides buttons for calling back or sending the caller an SMS message. Android provides the ability to run applications which change the default launcher and hence the appearance and externally visible behaviour of Android. These appearance changes include a multi-page dock or no dock, and many more changes to fundamental features of the user interface.

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