cloud services

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Cloud services means that services created offered to users on demand via the web from a cloud computing provider's servers as against being provided from a company's own on-premises servers. Cloud services are designed to produce simple, climbable access to applications, resources and services, and are totally managed by a cloud services supplier. A cloud service will dynamically scale to satisfy the wants of its users, and since the service supplier provides the hardware and package necessary for the service, there’s no would like for a corporation to provision or deploy its own resources or allot IT workers to manage the service. Samples of cloud services embrace on-line knowledge storage and backup solutions, Web-based e-mail services, hosted workplace suites and document collaboration services, info process, managed technical support services and a lot of.

A cloud service is any resource that's provided over the web. the foremost common cloud service resources are package as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). SaaS could be a package distribution model during which applications are hosted by a seller or service supplier and created offered to customers over a network, generally the web. PaaS refers to the delivery of operative systems and associated services over the web while not downloads or installation. IaaS involves outsourcing the instrumentation accustomed support operations, together with storage, hardware, servers and networking parts, all of that are created accessible over a network. SaaS, PaaS and IaaS are typically stated together because the SPI model. Cloud services are constant factor as net services. However, the term cloud services has been a lot of usually used as cloud computing has become a lot of pervasive.


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  •  A Parallel Hybrid Genetic Algorithm
  •  Reverse Caesar Cipher Algorithm
  •  Host Scheduling Algorithm
  •  Genetic Algorithm
  •  Selective Algorithm
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Cloud Services Measures for Global Use: The Service Measurement Index (SMI)


The Cloud Services Measurement Initiative Consortium (CSMIC) was formed to address the need for industry-wide, globally accepted measures for calculating the benefits and risks of cloud-computing services. A global team is developing a standard measurement framework, called the Service Measurement Index (SMI). SMI involves the application of consistent, meaningful measures that are designed to enable comparison of current cloud-based services with non-cloud services or cloud services available from multiple providers. Cloud Services characteristics where measures are being documented and tested include: Accountability, Agility, Assurance, Financials, Performance, Security and Privacy, and Usability. The SMI will address a total of 51 attributes. Given concerns in the literature and popular press about provider capabilities, cost, security and data privacy and data loss, as well as the flexibility that moving to cloud services promises, this paper provides examples of measures for these attributes.



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Related URL’s for reference

[1] A generic search based cloud service discovery mechanism

This paper presents ontology based cloud service discovery mechanism that aims to provide cloud users to find desired cloud services over the internet. The main objective is to construct cloud ontology on the basis of services and attributes, that helps to rearrange the query and to discover the cloud services for user's requirement. Cloud ontology brings various CSPS services under same name convention which makes identity and management of services easier. It uses cloud ontology to analyze and process the query. Cloud services are stored as individuals under the cloud ontology and properties are defined for each individual. The results about the services are fetched from the cloud ontology of each and every CSP by using the processed query. The various parameters such as SLAs: cost, software Licenses, security etc., are taken into consideration to sort the cloud services. The search engine is implemented using owlapi, sparqldl, and Jena packages with the java environment to retrieve services from cloud ontology directory.

[2] A Framework for Controlling and Managing Hybrid Cloud Service Integration"

In this paper, we first describe the challenges and pain points of adopting off-premise cloud-based computing services by enterprise users. To address these challenges, we have developed a hybrid cloud architectural framework for controlling and managing network of integrated computing services in on- and off-premise cloud environments. We identify three types of integration patterns that are commonly observed and describe support in the hybrid cloud framework for such patterns. The framework allows creation, modification, and management of integrated hybrid cloud services. Using this framework, we describe how solutions can be designed for policy-based access to cloud services from on-premise environments and for policy-based secure access to on premise data from off-premise cloud based services. The framework offers capabilities for (i) on-demand capacity expansion or cloud-bursting, (ii) service composition and management across multiple cloud domains, (iii) unification and customization of service offerings from multiple cloud service providers, (iv) seamless integration of common workload management services such monitoring, metering, and security, and (v) unified governance of IT operation across the hybrid cloud. We then describe a realization of this architecture that has served as the basis of IBM's hybrid cloud solution offerings and describe how the hybrid cloud framework described here mitigates some of cloud adoption risks and lowers or eliminates the inhibitors.

[3] An ontology based cloud service generic search engine

Cloud Computing has become a popular technology for delivering various services over internet. Many IT giants such as Amazon, Google, racks pace, and so on advancing their cloud services by integrating new technologies in to the cloud technology to provide wide variety of services to users. But these providers have different cloud service descriptions and non-standard naming conventions. As a result cloud service identification and discovery mechanism becomes difficult. This issue has been addressed in the proposed work by constructing a cloud ontology based on cloud services and their attributes. Cloud ontology based brings various Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) services under standard name conventions. Our proposed work also covers developing a generic search engine for searching cloud services. The keywords of the query are ordered based on cloud ontology and the ranking is based on the service attributes.

[4] Cloud Services

Summary form only given. Cloud Computing has been identified as one of the major IT trends for the upcoming decades, long before it grew in interest as a result of the current economic crisis. Cloud Computing will shift the economic landscape of information and communication technologies to the same magnitude as did the first wave of the Internet. It will change the way people work and the way companies operate profoundly, allowing digital technology to penetrate all dimensions of economy and society. It facilitates access and empowers individuals and small companies to participate in the information economy on par with large companies. SAP Research addresses Cloud Computing as part of its research on Systems Technology, to understand the impact of changes in the software engineering process, standardization of interfaces, performance characteristics, reliability of infrastructures and security challenges in the context of enterprise applications. As the adoption of Cloud Services to rebuild large application sets to fit onto the new infrastructures, the Internet of Services approach enables a direct connectivity to the computer resources. The use and trading of services (also referred to as the internet of services) will quickly outpace the trading of goods, setting up opportunities for a brand new set of offerings to fuel the economy transformation, both on a national and global level. This is already happening with a great deal of success in the consumer space, giving a preview of how this could evolve in the enterprise world. Existing business service providers started to enter the space by delivering bundled offerings of software as a service in the cloud, as well as full outsourcing services. Overall, in this space, Cloud Computing will accelerate the globalization process. With very few barriers, the trading and brokering of services developed and hosted in the cloud might quickly end up being concentrated in the hands of a few large global players. This play- - errs will take full advantage of their ability to assemble their value chain with the best components from all over the world, giving limited space for national vendors to play. This is similar to what happened in traditional supply chains. My presentation will outline some of the major characteristics of Cloud Services, and then concentrate on the architecture for the Internet of Services. A couple of examples from industries such as banking, insurance, urban management and retail will illustrate on how the technology advancement in Cloud Services will change the way the business applications will be build and used.

[5] Cloud BOSS: Cloud-centric BSS/OSS for enterprise cloud service operations

According to the long term vision of cloud computing, the cloud service gradually becomes a utility just like water, electricity , and telecommunication. Although the cloud service is supposed to greatly improve today's IT delivery model and offer potential benefits to customers by the saving of capital and operational expenditure and the greater flexibility of IT resources, cloud service providers are still facing a number of challenges such as service quality assurance and need to tackle them to gain advantage from cloud computing. In this paper, a set of cloud-centric BSS/OSS, called Cloud BOSS, was developed by adopting TM Forum NGOSS framework to support the management and operation of cloud services in a more efficient way. Cloud BOSS provides a self-service and self-management portal for customers to subscribe and manage cloud services on an “on-demand” basis. It also supports the integrated management of heterogeneous cloud resources on the common platform. To assure the quality of cloud services, Cloud BOSS provides service problem and quality management functions which proactively monitors the operation status of the cloud service from the viewpoint of customers. Currently, Cloud BOSS is on-line and used to support the operations of CaaS services offered by Chunghwa Telecom.

[6] Cloud Explorer: A User-Centered Cloud Browser for Cloud Services

A user-centered cloud browser, i.e., Cloud Explorer, is proposed to discover process and execute emerging cloud services, as Web browsers are used to search and display Web information. Cloud Explorer is the first attempt for end users to explore cloud services to meet with users' behaviors and concerns in the coming cloud society. The browser is devoted to end users and has made great differences in that (i) Cloud Explorer is personalized and each people can be provided with a private Cloud Explorer, (ii) Cloud Explorer discovers services based on user models and using semantic & composite service search techniques, (iii) Cloud Explorer support service package customization and execution with users' interaction, (iv) Cloud Explorer is located and associated with a person, and keeps the person's individual information, (v) Cloud Explorer provides an interaction-based security mechanism for cloud society. Other applications can interact with the browser to get certification and authorization to avoid releasing personal information. The principle and technical issues of Cloud Explorer are discussed. Based on the previous work, the browser has been prototyped to address several service-oriented application issues.

[7] A Framework for User Feedback Based Cloud Service Monitoring

The increasing popularity of the cloud computing paradigm and the emerging concept of federated cloud computing have motivated research efforts towards intelligent cloud service selection aimed at developing techniques for enabling the cloud users to gain maximum benefit from cloud computing by selecting services which provide optimal performance at lowest possible cost. Given the intricate and heterogeneous nature of current clouds, the cloud service selection process is, in effect, a multi criteria optimization or decision-making problem. The possible criteria for this process are related to both functional and nonfunctional attributes of cloud services. In this context, the two major issues are: (1) choice of a criteria-set and (2) mechanisms for the assessment of cloud services against each criterion for thorough continuous cloud service monitoring. In this paper, we focus on the issue of cloud service monitoring wherein the existing monitoring and assessment mechanisms are entirely dependent on various benchmark tests which, however, are unable to accurately determine or reliably predict the performance of actual cloud applications under a real workload. We discuss the recent research aimed at achieving this objective and propose a novel user-feedback-based approach which can monitor cloud performance more reliably and accurately as compared with the existing mechanisms.

[8] Multi-cloud service fulfillment architecture for enabling digital rain forest

With the growing of cloud services, a brand new business model was created in digital world. Customers can use cloud services just through the Internet no matter who provides the transport or access networks, and it makes Communication Service Provides(CSPs) face the possibility of losing all revenue except from connectivity services. Under this atmosphere, TeleManagement Forum (TMF) proposed the concept of digital service, or called “Multi-Cloud Service”. All kinds of communication networks are regarded as clouds, such as fixed-broadband cloud, wireless cloud, and etc. CSPs use common management interfaces to pack original broadband or Information Communication Technologies (ICT) services to basic cloud services and the service operation model will be like the real cloud services. In order to achieve this goal, CSPs have to face challenges that Operation Support Systems (OSSs) are lack of capability to integrate service lifecycle management for multi-cloud services which is composited by infrastructural and basic services. Moreover, poor information architecture and inflexible processes make challenges more difficult. Besides, some issues are not addressed in purpose of multi-cloud service guide, for instance, details of service mash up, service customization, and provisioning process management. In this paper, we present multi-cloud based information architecture which is adopted from our experiences of Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC) and ICT service operations to improve OSSs' ability for building up the capability of multi-cloud service fulfillment, and a management mechanism to address management issues afterward.

[9] Building an Expert System for Evaluation of Commercial Cloud Services

Commercial Cloud services have been increasingly supplied to customers in industry. To facilitate customers' decision makings like cost-benefit analysis or Cloud provider selection, evaluation of those Cloud services are becoming more and more crucial. However, compared with evaluation of traditional computing systems, more challenges will inevitably appear when evaluating rapidly-changing and user-uncontrollable commercial Cloud services. This paper proposes an expert system for Cloud evaluation that addresses emerging evaluation challenges in the context of Cloud Computing. Based on the knowledge and data accumulated by exploring the existing evaluation work, this expert system has been conceptually validated to be able to give suggestions and guidelines for implementing new evaluation experiments. As such, users can conveniently obtain evaluation experiences by using this expert system, which is essentially able to make existing efforts in Cloud services evaluation reusable and sustainable.

[10] Characterizing Service Assurance for Cloud-Based Implementations: Augmenting Assurance via Operations

Service assurance remains important for applications with cloud-based implementations, but now must be met via standardized cloud services. To meet custom assurance requirements, consumer controlled operations (e.g., around when to provision and what to provision) factor as integral design components to augment basic assurance of standard cloud services which may be individually less reliable. These operations determine how cloud-based implementations function through periods of increased demand or degradation in the underlying cloud services; they augment cloud's reliability with its agility. However, it is not enough to fix these operations at design time. Unpredictability in today's cloud services occurs not only across providers but over time within a provider. As such, our approach dynamically updates operations in response to monitored cloud conditions. The result enables a characterization of the assurance for the composite service delivered by the cloud-based implementation that factors in and adjusts for operations around procuring underlying cloud services.

[11] FARCREST: Euclidean Steiner Tree-based cloud service latency prediction system

Cloud resource provisioning is crucial to assure timely deliverable of delay-sensitive cloud services. Today, virtual machine (VM) reservations are done mainly based on cloud resource availability. Often, maximum VM resources are preserved to assure service response time, resulting in a waste of resources. While various techniques have been proposed to perform cloud response time measurement, most of these methodologies involve deploying standard target applications on selected cloud infrastructure, gathering, and analyzing each individual dataset collected. Such methods are useful for offline analysis, but incur high overhead and are not useful for real-time performance measurement for delay-sensitive application. In this demo, we present a light-weight real time service latency prediction mechanism based on Euclidean Steiner Tree (EST) model for optimum VM resource allocation in delay-sensitive cloud services. Our aim is to derive a highly accurate service latency prediction mechanism in a short time reflecting timely information of the actual cloud resources conditions, while imposing minimum overheads to the cloud service itself. We shall present a fast response cloud resource estimation system - FARCREST which integrates the prediction model with cloud front-end server for VM services latency prediction and deployment with production cloud experiment results.

[12] Customer Centric Cloud Service Model and a Case Study on Commerce as a Service

This paper proposes a cloud service model that centers on customer business requirements. The model covers the customers' subscribed services and the service providers' offered cloud services. It covers the relationship among offering versus subscription, cloud infrastructure service versus cloud application service, configuration versus customization of cloud services, etc. It then depicts a customer centric cloud service model which models the artifacts of enterprises owned by public serving cloud services. It's an extension of enterprise services to open service ecosystem leveraging the latest technical innovation of cloud computing. Later, this paper carries out a case study on an IBM software group ongoing project, commerce as a service, which aims to provide e-commerce functions as services over a cloud infrastructure.

[13] An architecture model of management and monitoring on Cloud services resources

As a new computing paradigm, Cloud computing has been advocated by IT industry and academia. It can provide lots of services, however, how to manage these services and guarantee the quality of service, has become one of the key factors for the development of Cloud computing. This paper proposes a hierarchical architecture model of Cloud services resources management and monitoring by integrating the power of Service-Oriented Architecture and the concept of IT service management. The architecture model uses service monitoring and process of IT service management to realize management of Cloud services resources, and then provides foundation for technology to ensure the quality of service of Cloud services. Therefore, it could be used as a reference architecture model of management and monitoring on Cloud services resources.

[14] Optimizing services selection in a cloud multiplatform scenario

Services selection is an important challenge for applications that use a composition of services provided by different cloud platforms. This paper presents an optimized cloud services selection approach that evaluates each alternative set of services that composed an execution plan. This approach considers cost and quality parameters for each cloud service in the execution plan, and excludes coincident services in the calculations. Coincident services are those services present in all available execution plans and therefore equally contribute in the calculations encompassing costs and quality parameters regarding these plans. By excluding coincident services, the service selection process by itself should be performed more quickly since it involves a smaller number of services, but with the trade-off of running an additional algorithm for identifying the coincident services among the available ones. In order to evaluate such trade-off and illustrate the proposed approach, we present a case study and an experimental evaluation that compares our new approach with a previous one that considers all services that compose all available execution plans.

[15] Modeling and Performance Analysis on Network Virtualization for Composite Network-Cloud Service Provisioning

Computer networks play a crucial role in Cloud service provisioning and network Quality of Service (QoS) has a significant impact on Cloud service performance. Therefore networking and Clouding computing systems should be modeled and analyzed as a composite service provisioning system in order to obtain thorough understanding about the user's perception of Cloud service performance. Network virtualization is one of the latest developments in the networking area, which de-couples networking services from network infrastructures. The Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) serves as a key enabler in both network virtualization and Cloud computing, thus offering a promising basis for network and Cloud composition. The research work presented in this paper investigates application of SOA in network virtualization for composing network and Cloud services, and analyzes the achievable performance of composite network-Cloud service provisioning. This paper proposes a SOA-based network virtualization paradigm, describes a service-oriented framework for composing network and Cloud services, proposes a new approach to modeling service capabilities of composite network -Cloud service provisioning systems, and develops analysis techniques for determining the performance that can be offered by composite network -- Cloud services to their end users.

[16] An End-to-End QoS Mapping Approach for Cloud Service Selection

In order to select and rank the best services in a cloud computing environment, the end-to-end quality of service (QoS) values of cloud services have to be computed. For a new SaaS provider, the deployment of its software application in the cloud is a challenging job. It has to find a hosting service (IaaS) that hosts its service. The primary goal of the SaaS provider is to make its service at the top of the ranked list of cloud services returned to end users through satisfying their QoS requirements. In this paper, we propose a mechanism to map the users' QoS requirements of cloud services to the right QoS specifications of SaaS then map them to best IaaS service that offers the optimal QoS guarantees. Then together SaaS and IaaS services can provide the best service offer to end users. As a result of the mapping, the end-to-end QoS values can be calculated. We propose a set of rules to perform the mapping process. We hierarchically model the QoS specifications of cloud services using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The AHP based model helps to facilitate the mapping process across the cloud layers, and to rank the candidate cloud services for end users. We use a case study to illustrate and validate our solution approach.

[17] A Framework for SLA-based cloud services verification and composition

Cloud computing is becoming a key element in service provision on the Internet. Businesses are seizing the availability of infrastructure as service to obtain cost effective infrastructure solutions. However, in businesses the power of services emerges from the ability to combine different services in order to obtain some value added services. Cloud services composition presents some challenges like, service discovery and real time service evaluation; which are addressed in this paper by introducing a primal framework that enables dynamic specification of SLAs, in addition to SLA-based verification and composition of services on the Cloud. The verification is used as input to the composition and consists of verifying the functional and non-functional properties of the cloud service under test. An ongoing prototype implementation will evaluate the verification scheme and prove its importance in composing and selecting services on the cloud.

[18] Towards a Taxonomy of Performance Evaluation of Commercial Cloud Services

Cloud Computing, as one of the most promising computing paradigms, has become increasingly accepted in industry. Numerous commercial providers have started to supply public Cloud services, and corresponding performance evaluation is then inevitably required for Cloud provider selection or cost-benefit analysis. Unfortunately, inaccurate and confusing evaluation implementations can be often seen in the context of commercial Cloud Computing, which could severely interfere and spoil evaluation-related comprehension and communication. This paper introduces taxonomy to help profile and standardize the details of performance evaluation of commercial Cloud services. Through a systematic literature review, we constructed the taxonomy along two dimensions by arranging the atomic elements of Cloud-related performance evaluation. As such, this proposed taxonomy can be employed both to analyze existing evaluation practices through decomposition into elements and to design new experiments through composing elements for evaluating performance of commercial Cloud services. Moreover, through smooth expansion, we can continually adapt this taxonomy to the more general area of evaluation of Cloud Computing.

[19] Adoption of Cloud Computing Services by Public Sector Organizations

Despite attractive benefits a range of barriers is inhibiting take-up of Cloud Computing services which in most public sector organizations remains at less than 5% of the ICT footprint. The generic factor inhibiting wider deployment is that use of Cloud Computing services exposes organizations to heightened risks. While the inherent risks can be managed, in the near term significant investment in skills, processes, tools and technology is a prerequisite for doing so efficiently. For many organizations that use ICT services, the level of investment needed will often be prohibitive. This has created the opportunity for the emergence of trusted cloud brokerage services that can invest strategically to assist organizations with the use of Cloud Computing services and management of the associated risks, developing service portfolios that reduce upfront costs, so that use of Cloud Computing services becomes the best choice on a project by project basis. This paper considers the benefits of Cloud Computing, identifies the barriers to take up and how these can be overcome, and considers how cloud services brokerages can potentially develop new capabilities to accelerate take-up and benefits realization.

[20] Implementation of Video and Medical Image Services in Cloud

The main subject of this paper is how to construct virtualization in the cloud for implementing video and medical image services. The framework of cloud service contains the infrastructure, OS, virtual machines, platform, cloud web application services, and cloud devices. We build medical image and video services on cloud IaaS environment, which integrates KVM and Open Nebula open sources to provide a cloud virtual environment for end users. Also, Hadoop open source, as cloud PaaS, is used for these two cloud services. This paper realizes medical image and video services that are easy for users to understand, access, and operate with them in the cloud. The proposed system can improve medical imaging storage, transmission stability, and reliability while providing an easy-to-operate management interface.

[21] Autonomic Brokerage Service for an End-to-End Cloud Networking Service Level Agreement

Today, cloud networking which is the ability to connect the user with his cloud services and to interconnect these services within an inter-cloud approach, is one of the recent research areas in the cloud computing research communities. The main drawback of cloud networking consists in the lack of Quality of Service (QoS) assurance and management in conformance with a corresponding Service Level Agreement (SLA). In this paper, we propose a framework for self-establishing an end-to-end service level agreement between a Cloud Service User (CSU) and multiple Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) in a cloud networking environment using brokerage service. We focus on QoS parameters for Naas and IaaS services. This framework ensures a self-establishing of the proposed SLA using autonomic cloud managers. Moreover, videoconferencing is a very demanding application in terms of bandwidth, delay and CPU resources that we have to guarantee. Therefore, we propose to use our cloud networking architecture and framework to provide the cloud videoconferencing application with QoS guarantee. We simulate the corresponding scenario using the Cloud Sim toolkit to evaluate its performance. The results reveal a high scalability, and a good video conferencing delay.

[22] Dynamic Certification of Cloud Services

Cloud computing introduces several characteristics that challenge the effectiveness of current certification approaches. Particularly, the on-demand, automated, location-independent, elastic, and multi-tenant nature of cloud computing systems is in contradiction with the static, manual, and human process-oriented evaluation and certification process designed for traditional IT systems. Cloud-specific certification processes can improve trust in the cloud computing paradigm, and can lead to the wide adoption of cloud services in enterprises by mastery of uncertainty, lack of transparency, and trust. Through third party evaluation cloud customers could receive more unbiased information about cloud-based services and security measures implemented as well as they could compare different cloud service providers much easier. Common certificates are a backward look at the fulfillment of technical and organizational measures at the time of issue and therefore represent a snapshot. This creates a gap between the common certification of one to three years and the high dynamics of the market for cloud services and providers. The proposed dynamic certification approach adopts the common certification process to the increased flexibility and dynamics of cloud computing environments through using of automation potential of security controls and continuous proof of the certification status. Dynamic certification is based on a new semi-automated certification process and the continuous monitoring of critical parameters of cloud services.

[23] Deploying cloud services in mobile networks

Mobile networks have gone through various stages of evolution with each stage aimed at addressing a wide range of challenges and limitations. During the early evolutions of mobile networks - 2G, 2.5G, 3G -, the key challenge was to investigate efficient and cost effective ways of delivering higher data speeds. This led to the proposals and development of 4G LTE networks based on a flat all-IP architecture with Internet based protocols. However, recent trends indicates that the Internet-like architecture in mobile networks has further enabled Internet based cloud service providers to provide Over-The-Top (OTT) applications to mobile devices bypassing and competing with the mobile operator on services such as voice, video, messaging and gaming. This is a key motivation for cloud service providers and mobile operators to explore various opportunities in which they can both leverage on their existing infrastructures in order to efficiently deploy cloud services in mobile environments. In this paper we study the challenges and limitations that constrain the efficient deployment of cloud services in mobile environments. We then propose a collaborative approach in which the cloud service provider and mobile operator can dynamically manage the underlying mobile network infrastructure resources in order to optimize the delivery of cloud services in mobile environments. This is achieved by using cloud management approaches with the ability to factor in mobile resources such as mobility and frequency spectrums while also integrating the cloud service provider and mobile operator cloud infrastructures.

[24] Reputation Measurement of Cloud Services Based on Unstable Feedback Ratings

With the rapid development of Cloud computing, more and more service providers could provide cloud services (applications) to users. Faced with mass Cloud services, trust and reputation mechanisms offer a promising way to solve the trust evaluation of Cloud services. Hence, trust and reputation play an important role in evaluating of Cloud services. In this paper, we propose a lightweight reputation measurement approach for Cloud services based on (user) feedback ratings. The proposed approach first adopts cloud model to obtain the trust vector of each cloud service by exploiting feedback ratings. The trust vector consists of Expected value, Entropy value and Hyper-Entropy value. Then we use fuzzy set theory to calculate the reputation scores of Cloud services. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is significantly effective for unstable feedback ratings.

[25] CEEM: A Practical Methodology for Cloud Services Evaluation

Given an increasing number of Cloud services available in the market, evaluating candidate Cloud services is crucial and beneficial for both service customers (e.g. cost benefit analysis) and providers (e.g. direction of improvement). When it comes to performing any evaluation, a suitable methodology is inevitably required to direct experimental implementations. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of a sound methodology to guide the evaluation of Cloud services. By borrowing the lessons from evaluation of traditional computing systems, referring to the guidelines for Design of Experiments (DOE), and summarizing the existing experiences of real experimental studies, we proposed a generic Cloud Evaluation Experiment Methodology (CEEM) for Cloud services evaluation. Furthermore, we have established a pre-experimental knowledge base and specified corresponding suggestions to make this methodology more practical in the Cloud Computing domain. Through evaluating the Google AppEngine Python runtime as a preliminary validation, we show that Cloud evaluators may achieve more rational and convincing experimental results and conclusions following such an evaluation methodology.

[26] Partitioned services layer autonomous system for cloud computing

Cloud computing became recently a common paradigm in both industry and academia. Sensitive applications such as medical, military, and financial ones rely on clouds' platform. Therefore, services continuity should be guaranteed as much as possible. However, services are sensitive to the network Quality of Service (QoS). Heavy network traffic may have its negative impact on services execution in a cloud environment. In extreme cases, cloud services may be completely interrupted due to many reasons including natural disasters - such as earthquakes and tornadoes - and human-induced disasters ranging from hackers to terrorists. In such circumstances, services should be automated without human intervention in order to minimize losses as much as possible. In this paper, the Partitioned Services Layer (PSL) architecture is proposed. It categorizes services into real-time and non real time. Since real-time services are critical, they should not be subject to QoS. Therefore, they run on a Distributed Autonomous Control (DAC) environment in which devices are connected through a Local Area Network (LAN). On the other hand, non real-time services are executed in the cloud environment to reduce costs. Nevertheless, basic services are automated by another autonomous system which is based on case reasoning. Finally, the proposed architecture is analyzed and compared to other related work.

[27] A Semantic Registry for Cloud Services

In the context of the efforts to organize the knowledge in the new and emerging area of Cloud Computing we performed an analysis of relevant existing developments and built on this basis a framework for a semantic registry of cloud services. The framework contains core ontological definitions and extension mechanisms used to define ontologies for cloud services, related to the aspects of semantic discovery and composition of cloud services. The relevance of the proposed registry can be assessed in relation with cloud interoperability, cloud service composition, as well as software services that offer support for finding and selecting cloud services and for marketing advantages of different cloud providers.

[28] Delay Performance of Resilient Cloud Services over Networks

Even though both delay and availability are of high importance for cloud services, it is mostly impossible today to guarantee a certain latency and availability for end-to-end cloud services traversing the telecommunication networks. An enabler is network virtualization with isolated virtual networks and combined control for network and IT resources. In this paper, we introduce two fundamental architectural alternatives in resilience design for cloud services using virtual networks, where in the former, resilience is provided solely by the physical infrastructure provider and in the latter only by the virtual network operator. We show that the resilience design plays a key role in terms of latency of the cloud services. Our simulation results show that the guaranteed maximum delay for the cloud services can differ by more than 90% depending on the implemented resilience design. This can have a big impact on the service performance in large networks especially for today's applications, where each millisecond might count.

[29] Cloud service broker portal: Main entry point for multi-cloud service providers and consumers

Cloud-service-broker needs a virtual service portal between multiple cloud-service-providers and cloud-service-consumers. The cloud-service-broker portal enables the cloud-service-providers to specify available their services. In addition, the cloud-service-consumers may find the most suitable services by negotiating the agreements on the services. The cloud-service-broker as an emerging technology intermediates heterogeneous multiple cloud services for both the providers and consumers. In this paper, we suggest the web-based user interface design of the cloud-service-broker portal to support different providers and consumers.

[30] Toward cloud computing reference architecture: Cloud service management perspective

Cloud computing architecture is used as a guideline to understand the whole process including actor roles inside a cloud computing environment. Currently, there is only a few clouds computing architecture that can be used as a reference for building a cloud computing infrastructure. As cloud computing technology is being used to minimize the usage cost of computing resources, many enterprises gained interest of migrating their old system to the cloud computing system. This paper describes an overview of the new proposed cloud computing reference architecture but focusing on one of the cloud provider components which is cloud service management. It is required for cloud providers to support them managing their cloud services properly from the planning to delivery and operation process.

[31] Technical Challenges and Solution Space for Developing SaaS and Mash-Up Cloud Services

As an effective reuse paradigm, Cloud Computing (CC) provides many benefits. Among different types of cloud services, SaaS and Mash-up services are delivering the conventional software functionality as a service. Hence, both types of services become alternatives to acquisition of conventional software applications. However, there are some critical technical problems/risks in trying to reuse SaaS and Mash-up services, such as providing pre-specified scalability even at peak and engineering services with high commonality and applicability. In this paper, we first define meta-models of two types of cloud services; SaaS and Mash-up Service. For each type of cloud service, we raise two technical issues and provide their effective solution space. By applying the provided solutions, much of the technical problems and risks can be remedied in advance, making cloud services more reusable and reliable.

[32] Boosting Metrics for Cloud Services Evaluation -- The Last Mile of Using Benchmark Suites

Benchmark suites are significant for evaluating various aspects of Cloud services from a holistic view. However, there is still a gap between using benchmark suites and achieving holistic impression of the evaluated Cloud services. Most Cloud service evaluation work intended to report individual benchmarking results without delivering summary measures. As a result, it could be still hard for customers with such evaluation reports to understand an evaluated Cloud service from a global perspective. Inspired by the boosting approaches to machine learning, we proposed the concept Boosting Metrics to represent all the potential approaches that are able to integrate a suite of benchmarking results. This paper introduces two types of preliminary boosting metrics, and demonstrates how the boosting metrics can be used to supplement primary measures of individual Cloud service features. In particular, boosting metrics can play a summary Response role in applying experimental design to Cloud services evaluation. Although the concept Boosting Metrics was refined based on our work in the Cloud Computing domain, we believe it can be easily adapted to the evaluation work of other computing paradigms.

[33] Policy-Based Event-Driven Services-Oriented Architecture for Cloud Services Operation & Management

Cloud based services, by their nature, are distributed and traditional operation and management processes that often exert centralized control are not suited for cloud services operation and management. This paper introduces a Policy-based Event-driven Service-oriented Architecture (PESA) that enables the manageability of these loosely coupled services distributed across multiple public or private clouds or a hybrid cloud. PESA allows the implementation of policy driven management of service availability, performance, security and risk management. Using the concept of logical and virtual partitioning of the business service fabric into sub-fabrics - islands of services that may span company, geographical, and technological boundaries, public and private clouds, and corporate data centers, we describe conceptual management architecture for policy enforcement. An example describes service availability and performance assurance in a business process implementation using a set of loosely coupled service components in a virtual cloud.

[33] Policy-Based Event-Driven Services-Oriented Architecture for Cloud Services Operation & Management

Cloud based services, by their nature, are distributed and traditional operation and management processes that often exert centralized control are not suited for cloud services operation and management. This paper introduces a Policy-based Event-driven Service-oriented Architecture (PESA) that enables the manageability of these loosely coupled services distributed across multiple public or private clouds or a hybrid cloud. PESA allows the implementation of policy driven management of service availability, performance, security and risk management. Using the concept of logical and virtual partitioning of the business service fabric into sub-fabrics - islands of services that may span company, geographical, and technological boundaries, public and private clouds, and corporate data centers, we describe conceptual management architecture for policy enforcement. An example describes service availability and performance assurance in a business process implementation using a set of loosely coupled service components in a virtual cloud.

[34] Cloud services for SMEs: Contract Management's requirements specification

Software tools for Contract Management (CM) are designed to support a wide range of contracts, but they can fall short in the case of cloud contracts. Cloud services, in fact, cross national boundaries and this entails complex problems (security, non disclosure, privacy,) about applicable laws, jurisdiction, accountability, third parties etc. Moreover, cloud services must be monitored and managed according to specific contract's elements (service level agreements, penalties, etc.) and this prefigures tighter integration among CM tools and other IT management tools. These aspects are even more relevant to Small and Medium IT Enterprises (SMEs) adopting open CM tools to manage their contracts about own cloud services, because they often lack skills, maturity and sophisticated tools already acquired by the larger companies. In this scenario we propose a requirement elicitation approach based on CM process modeling and information modeling to extend the current generation of open CM tools with the above mentioned features, for SMEs.

[35] A Framework for Implementing Mobile Cloud Services in VANETs

The strong potentials that exist in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) has given birth to the concept of Vehicular Clouds, in which cloud computing services are hosted by vehicles that have sufficient resources to act as mobile cloud servers. In this paper, we propose a protocol that enables vehicles to search for mobile cloud servers that are moving nearby and discover their services and resources. The design depends on roadside units (RSUs) that act as cloud directories with which mobile cloud server’s register. We evaluate the performance of our protocol using ns2 and explain through comparing the results to another scheme the feasibility and efficiency of our protocol in terms of service discovery and service consuming delays and packet success ratio.

[36] Automating Cloud Services Life Cycle through Semantic Technologies

Managing virtualized services efficiently over the cloud is an open challenge. Traditional models of software development are not appropriate for the cloud computing domain, where software (and other) services are acquired on demand. In this paper, we describe a new integrated methodology for the life cycle of IT services delivered on the cloud and demonstrate how it can be used to represent and reason about services and service requirements and so automate service acquisition and consumption from the cloud. We have divided the IT service life cycle into five phases of requirements, discovery, negotiation, composition, and consumption. We detail each phase and describe the on tologies that we have developed to represent the concepts and relationships for each phase. To show how this life cycle can automate the usage of cloud services, we describe a cloud storage prototype that we have developed. This methodology complements previous work on ontologies for service descriptions in that it is focused on supporting negotiation for the particulars of a service and going beyond simple matchmaking.

[37] towards cloud services marketplaces

When we think of Marketplaces we think of places where third parties bring their goods for consumers to find them and transact in some convenient way. When we take this idea to the cloud services space we think of third party services providers that bring their cloud services, and services consumers that expect to match the capabilities that best suit their needs with a service offering. Services as opposed to goods vary in the way they function, in the way that they get activated, and vary in the way they surface the requirements they fulfill. For the consumer the task does not get easier, and to find a solution tailored to their solution may be a trying task. In this paper we explore the landscape of cloud services marketplaces, where we are, a perspective of architecture, and in particular some of the enablers that would help consumers engage with the marketplace in an easy to use and successful manner.

[38] Estimating Security Coverage for Cloud Services

Secure cloud environment is essential for providing uninterrupted services to customers (individual user, company and government), since customers are relying on cloud for their computing and network service needs. As providers play the central role in cloud security, they need to establish rigorous security measures as a part of their service offerings. In order to limit liabilities for damages caused by the cloud, some form of insurance seems appropriate. For cloud security insurance, however, the question of differential security coverage is relevant as the cost of deploying special protection, detection and response tools varies and requires the coverage estimation. In this paper, we describe a framework to estimate security coverage for different type of service offerings. We have developed software prototype of this framework, called MEGHNAD and tested for various cloud service security requirements. This prototype can serve as a specialized Cloud Doctor in prescribing the right combination of security tools for different cloud services and according to the level of security assurance required.

[39] CSLAM: A framework for cloud service level agreement management based on WSLA

With impressive progress of cloud computing and its influence on many aspects of utility computing, many of companies and enterprises are tending to this new product of information technology; some of these companies are interested in consuming cloud services and others tend to provide cloud services. The most common thing for these two major classes of users is service level agreements (SLAs) which are set between them. Many frameworks have been introduced for SLA management in webservice level, but there are few applicable frameworks that are specific for cloud computing services. In this paper, we propose a framework for SLA management in cloud computing and especially inter-cloudenvironments. This framework is based on WSLA which is introduced by IBM, but we have changed it to fit into cloud computing environments. This framework is in fact a component of the cloud computing framework which we have introduced in our previous work. In this paper we are not going to provide a list of cloud service SLA parameters; instead, we propose a framework to manage cloud service SLAs and metrics.

[40] Architecture for Inter-cloud Services Using IPsec VPN

Cloud computing provides computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. Cloud platform services, delivers a computing platform and/or solution stack as service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. In future cloud computing architecture enables many cloud services to connect to each other freely. Using IPsec VPN it will increase the complexity in terms of security policies along with the evolving cloud architecture. In this paper, we discuss how we can introduce IPsec VPN in inter-cloud computing architecture.

[41] Cloud service engineering

Building on compute and storage virtualization, Cloud Computing provides scalable, network-centric, abstracted IT infrastructure, platforms, and applications as on-demand services that are billed by consumption. Cloud Service engineering is the application of a systematic approach to leverage Cloud Computing in the context of the Internet in its combined role as a platform for technical, economic, organizational and social networks. This tutorial introduces concepts and technology of Cloud Computing and Cloud Service engineering , providing an overview of state-of-the-art in research and practice. We show how to set up a private Cloud that delivers Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS). Eucalyptus and Open Nebula are popular open source software frameworks for creating on-premise Clouds. Promises, challenges and solutions for integrating services of a private Cloud with public Cloud services such as Amazon EC2 and SQS are discussed. We show how the best of both worlds - private and public Clouds - can be combined to build scalable and secure systems.

[42] Cloud Service Brokers: An Emerging Trend in Cloud Adoption and Migration

With the advent of cloud, a large number of cloud providers have surfaced in the market. Cloud Consumers are rapidly using cloud services (IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS) to meet their business needs while cloud providers are rapidly developing much needed tools and environments. This rapid growth however is creating a significant need to develop fast and controlled mechanisms for managing costs, capacity and resources at agreed service levels in order to have a smooth adoption, management and maintenance of cloud for both consumers and providers. Cloud Services Brokerages (CSBs), an intermediary between the consumer and providers, emerges as a solution to address above need. In this paper we focus on reviewing the significance, role and services of a CSB, followed by a categorization of CSBs on the basis of the services they provide, and a method to select a CSB from a pool of CSBs.

[43] A research of critical factors in the enterprise adoption of cloud service

Cloud is essentially a flexible and scalable model for the way IT services are delivered and consumed. There are lots of advantages to using cloud computing for international companies. One of the major ones is the flexibility that it offers. Cloud computing means that users can access the files and data that they need even when they're working remotely. Since the popularity of cloud service, businesses are looking for cloud solutions to solve some of their biggest business and technology challenges: reducing costs, creating new levels of efficiency, and facilitating innovative business models. To understand what that means to the business, the benefits and potential risks of migrating to cloud services need to be carefully considered. The suitable business model is therefore becoming the focus as adopting the cloud service. The study is based on the Critical Factor Index with AHP method which had here a different function than it usually does. Basically all the other results given by the Critical Factor Index are based on a questionnaire inside the companies. In this case, the study was carried out by using external experts. The research outcome will conclude the critical success factors and new business model of cloud service adoption. We also discuss the factors that make cloud computing an attractive option for enterprises.

[44] 4CaaSt: Comprehensive Management of Cloud Services through a PaaS

The 4CaaSt project aims at developing a PaaS framework that enables flexible definition, marketing, deployment and management of Cloud-based services and applications. The major innovations proposed by 4CaaSt are the blueprint and its lifecycle management, a one stop shop for Cloud services and a PaaS level resource management featuring elasticity. 4CaaSt also provides a portfolio of ready to use Cloud native services and Cloud-aware immigrant technologies.

[45] The KOALA Cloud Manager: Cloud Service Management the Easy Way

The key advantages of cloud computing are flexibility, scalability (elasticity) and usability and these features originated in the combination of virtualization technologies with web services. However, in contrast to the elasticity and flexibility of cloud services the traditional management methods and tools seem inappropriate because they usually require local software installation with continuous updates and patches. Furthermore, the solutions are often proprietary and only conform to the cloud service offerings of specific service providers, making it difficult to work with cloud services of different providers. A vendor agnostic generic cloud based software service would bear many advantages in this area. This paper describes the design of a better management solution - the KOALA cloud management service - for cloud services and its implementation.

[46] CLOUDQUAL: A Quality Model for Cloud Services

Cloud computing is an important component of the backbone of the Internet of Things (IoT). Clouds will be required to support large numbers of interactions with varying quality requirements. Service quality will therefore be an important differentiator among cloud providers. In order to distinguish themselves from their competitors, cloud providers should offer superior services that meet customers' expectations. A quality model can be used to represent, measure, and compare the quality of the providers, such that a mutual understanding can be established among cloud stakeholders. In this paper, we take a service perspective and initiate a quality model named CLOUDQUAL for cloud services. It is a model with quality dimensions and metrics that targets general cloud services. CLOUDQUAL contains six quality dimensions, i.e., usability, availability, reliability, responsiveness, security, and elasticity, of which usability is subjective, whereas the others are objective. To demonstrate the effectiveness of CLOUDQUAL, we conduct empirical case studies on three storage clouds. Results show that CLOUDQUAL can evaluate their quality. To demonstrate its soundness, we validate CLOUDQUAL with standard criteria and show that it can differentiate service quality

[47] Design thinking: An exploration of mobile shopping for cloud services

Finding the best cloud service and cloud service provider that meet technical and business requirements of a particular organization is a well-known challenge. The decision making process is quite complex and includes understanding of the requirements, discovery of available cloud services, comparison of services available, and contract negotiation. With IT buying patterns changing, CIO and IT organizations are no longer the sole decision makers. The trend of Line-Of-Business owners shopping for Cloud Services is growing. In large organizations, the process requires collaboration between multiple stakeholders - business owners, enterprise architects, and procurement, which presents the additional challenge of finding effective communication and coordination mechanisms understood by a diversity of users. By applying design thinking principals, this paper examines a human aspect of the decision making process when shopping for cloud services. Our informal research into the application of design thinking focused on the design of a mobile application that eases the process of Cloud Service Shopping, ultimately resulting in design concepts for enhanced collaborative search and comparison capabilities.

[48] Improving Cloud Service Reliability -- A System Accounting Approach

Nowadays an increasing number of companies only deploy their enterprise application services over the Internet. Software as a Service (SaaS) in a cloud computing environment allows these companies to focus on providing more competitive services instead of maintenance. As delivery of computing as a service, a trustworthy cloud service widely depends upon its reliability. For this reason, a newly defined Quality of Reliability (QoR) for cloud services is proposed in this paper. To achieve a good QoR, we not only analyze system events from both service consumers and providers, but also provide a layered compostable system accounting architecture for cloud systems. A pipelined approach and a dependence estimation algorithm are introduced for pattern recognition and event analysis and prediction. A self-healing layer is also designed to achieve automatic recovery by re-composing services according to their functionalities and non-functional requirements. An implementation of this framework in an education services environment confirms the advantages over extant system accounting systems.

[49] A Reliability-Based Trust Management Mechanism for Cloud Services

With the increasing demand for cloud services, trust management has become a challenging and important issue in a cloud computing environment. In a trust management mechanism, trust feedback is used to derive trust evaluation results. However, the reliability of the trust feedback from cloud service users needs to be considered, because unreliable trust feedback can produce wrong trust results. In this paper, we first propose a trust management framework for cloud computing environments, and then we introduce an effective reliability-based filtering mechanism to ensure the reliability of trust feedback for cloud computing services. The filtering mechanism uses two important factors, namely, familiarity and consistency, to filter out unreliable trust feedback. Our experiments show that our proposed reliability-based trust management mechanism is effective.

[50] Modeling Contract Management for Cloud Services

Contract Management plays a central role in the management of Cloud Services and requires suitable software solutions to entrust to a third party the provision of applications, infrastructure or services. Contracts for suspects in a concise and expressive form, able to drive the business, but also to minimize any controversy in case of problems. Moreover, it must cover a wide range of scenarios: from well-known standard situations (e.g. to provide email, web hosting or housing to private and small companies) to highly customized ones (Government, large companies and strategic customers may have very specific requests which also affect contracts). In all cases software support is essential, during the whole contract lifecycle, from formation to execution, up to the conclusion. In this scenario we propose a process model and an information model as the foundation to build a tool for Cloud Services' Contract Management (CM). The validation of both models is carried out by means of a focus group of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).

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