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Cloud-assisted mobile health (mHealth) monitoring, which applies the prevailing mobile communications and cloud computing technologies to provide feedback decision support, has been considered as a revolutionary approach to improving the quality of healthcare service while lowering the healthcare cost. Unfortunately, it also poses a serious risk on both clients’ privacy and intellectual property of monitoring service providers, which could deter the wide adoption of mHealth technology. This paper is to address this important problem and design a cloud-assisted privacy preserving mobile health monitoring system to protect the privacy of the involved parties and their data. Moreover, the outsourcing decryption technique and a newly proposed key private proxy reencryption are adapted to shift the computational complexity of the involved parties to the cloud without compromising clients’ privacy and service providers’ intellectual property. Finally, our security and performance analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed design.
Cloud computing is set of resources and services offered through the Internet. Cloud services are delivered from data centers located throughout the world. Cloud computing facilitates its consumers by providing virtual resources via internet. General example of cloud services is Google apps, provided by Google and Microsoft SharePoint. The rapid growth in field of “cloud computing” also increases severe security concerns. Security has remained a constant issue for Open Systems and internet, when we are talking about security cloud really suffers. Lack of security is the only hurdle in wide adoption ofcloud computing. Cloud computing is surrounded by many security issues like securing data, and examining the utilization of cloud by the cloud computing vendors. The wide acceptance www has raised security risks along with the uncountable benefits, so is the case with cloud computing. The boom in cloud computing has brought lots of security challenges for the consumers and service providers. How the end users of cloud computing know that their information is not having any availability and security issues? Every one poses, Is their information secure? This study aims to identify the most vulnerable security threats in cloud computing, which will enable both end users and vendors to know about the key security threats associated with cloud computing. Our work will enable researchers and security professionals to know about users and vendors concerns and critical analysis about the different security models and tools proposed.
Although the cloud computing model is considered to be a very promising internet-based computingplatform, it results in a loss of security control over the cloud-hosted assets. This is due to the outsourcing of enterprise IT assets hosted on third-party cloud computing platforms. Moreover, the lack of security constraints in the Service Level Agreements between the cloud providers and consumers results in a loss of trust as well. Obtaining a security certificate such as ISO 27000 or NIST-FISMA would help cloud providers improve consumers trust in their cloud platforms' security. However, such standards are still far from covering the full complexity of the cloud computing model. We introduce a new cloud security management framework based on aligning the FISMA standard to fit with the cloudcomputing model, enabling cloud providers and consumers to be security certified. Our framework is based on improving collaboration between cloud providers, service providers and service consumers in managing the security of the cloud platform and the hosted services. It is built on top of a number of security standards that assist in automating the security management process. We have developed a proof of concept of our framework using. NET and deployed it on a test bed cloud platform. We evaluated the framework by managing the security of a multi-tenant SaaS application exemplar.
Although cloud computing is generally recognized as a technology which will has a significant impact on IT in the future. However, Cloud computing is still in its infancy, currently, there is not a standard available for it, portability and interoperability is also impossible between different Cloud ComputingService Providers, therefore, handicaps the widely deploy and quick development of cloud computing, there is still a long distance to the fine scenery which theoretically depicted by cloud computing. We analyze the problems in the current state of the art, put forward that Open Cloud Computing Federation is an inevitable approach for the widely use of cloud computing and to realize the greatest value of it. Accordingly, we proposal the MABOCCF (Mobile Agent Based Open Cloud Computing Federation) mechanism in this paper, it combines the advantages of Mobile Agent and cloud computing to provide a realization for the Open Cloud Computing Federation, MABOCCF can span over multiple heterogeneous Cloud Computing platforms and realizes portability and interoperability, it can be a beginning of open cloud computing federation and a future part of cloud computing. We also present in this paper the rationalities and the motivations for the combination of Mobile Agent and CloudComputing, finally, a prototype is given with a performance analysis.
Cloud computing has become increasingly popular by obviating the need for users to own and maintain complex computing infrastructure. However, due to their inherent complexity and large scale, productioncloud computing systems are prone to various runtime problems caused by hardware and software failures. Dependability assurance is crucial for building sustainable cloud computing services. Although many techniques have been proposed to analyze and enhance reliability of distributed systems, there is little work on understanding the dependability of cloud computing environments. As virtualization has been an enabling technology for the cloud, it is imperative to investigate the impact of virtualization on the cloud dependability, which is the focus of this work. In this paper, we present a cloud dependability analysis (CDA) framework with mechanisms to characterize failure behavior in cloud computing infrastructures. We design the failure-metric DAGs (directed a cyclic graph) to analyze the correlation of various performance metrics with failure events in virtualized and non-virtualized systems. We study multiple types of failures. By comparing the generated DAGs in the two environments, we gain insight into the impact of virtualization on the cloud dependability. This paper is the first attempt to study this crucial issue. In addition, we exploit the identified metrics for failure detection. Experimental results from an on-campus cloud computing test bed show that our approach can achieve high detection accuracy while using a small number of performance metrics.
The cloud computing is a new computing model which comes from grid computing, distributedcomputing, parallel computing, virtualization technology, utility computing and other computer technologies and it has more advantage characters such as large scale computation and data storage, virtualization, high expansibility, high reliability and low price service. The security problem of cloudcomputing is very important and it can prevent the rapid development of cloud computing. This paper introduces some cloud computing systems and analyzes cloud computing security problem and its strategy according to the cloud computing concepts and characters. The data privacy and service availability in cloud computing are the key security problem. Single security method cannot solve the cloud computing security problem and many traditional and new technologies and strategies must be used together for protecting the total cloud computing system
Cloud computing has brought new changes and opportunities to IT industry. It is the result of the evolution of a variety of techniques. And the railway department will use the cloud computing technology to achieve the sharing of the railway information resources and to improve the capacity of information processing. But with the development of the cloud computing, it also faced with many difficulties, cloudcomputing security has become the leading cause of impeding its development. Cloud computingsecurity has become a hot topic in industry and academic research. This paper will explore the status of the development of cloud computing security, analyze the data privacy, security auditing, data monitoring and other challenges that the cloud computing security faced with. We will describe the solutions which the industry and academia proposed for some key issues of cloud computing security, such as virtualization security and traffic monitoring between virtual machines and so on. And we analyzed the security of cloud computing in railway environment. We proposed a cloud computing security reference framework. The purpose of this paper is attempted to bring greater clarity landscape about cloud computing security.
Cloud computing is one of today's most exciting technologies due to its ability to reduce costs associated with computing while increasing flexibility and scalability for computer processes. During the past few years, cloud computing has grown from being a promising business idea to one of the fastest growing parts of the IT industry. IT organizations have expresses concern about critical issues (such as security) that exist with the widespread implementation of cloud computing. These types of concerns originate from the fact that data is stored remotely from the customer's location; in fact, it can be stored at any location. Security, in particular, is one of the most argued-about issues in the cloud computingfield; several enterprises look at cloud computing warily due to projected security risks. The risks of compromised security and privacy may be lower overall, however, with cloud computing than they would be if the data were to be stored on individual machines instead of in a so - called "cloud" (the network of computers used for remote storage and maintenance). Comparison of the benefits and risks of cloud computing with those of the status quo are necessary for a full evaluation of the viability ofcloud computing. Consequently, some issues arise that clients need to consider as they contemplate moving to cloud computing for their businesses. In this paper I summarize reliability, availability, and security issues for cloud computing (RAS issues), and propose feasible and available solutions for some of them..
Cloud Computing is evolving as a key technology for sharing resources. Grid Computing, distributedcomputing, parallel computing and virtualization technologies define the shape of a new era. Traditional distance learning systems lack reusability, portability and interoperability. This paper sees cloudcomputing ecosystem as a new opportunity in designing cloud computing educational platforms where learning actors can reuse learning resources handled by cloud educational operating systems. To enhance learning objects portability and interoperability not only cloud computing API standards should be advocated by the key cloud providers but also learning resources standards should be defined by the Open Cloud Computing Education Federation as proposed by this paper.
The cloud computing security in digital library was analyzed, for the digital books borrow, cloud storage and other related issues, a specific application of homomorphic encryption mechanism about library cloud computing was proposed. Firstly, the cloud computing mode of library digital resources is defined, a variety of collections databases and network resources adopt cloud computing mode to provide their service, these resources and service are placed in the cloud. And then the cloud key distribution scheme to adapt to library applications was presented, the improved traditional PKI, the PKI-based cloud computing communication and privacy protection mechanisms for library are introduced. The corresponding solution detail are proposed also: library cloud computing key distribution, authentication and encryption methods, more secure homomorphic encryption mechanism for library information retrieval. Preliminary analysis indicates that, these measures can protect the privacy and information security of library cloud computing..
Cloud computing is becoming as a main choice computing paradigm for the enterprises. Use of cloudcomputing technologies is increasing by every passing day. It has great advantages of on-demandcomputing, scalability, proactive resource management, better application throughput, and enhanced security. Due to its openness and adaptability, it can be a good option for voluntary resource computing among non-profit organizations. In this paper, we present a model for cooperative cloud computing among research institutes and universities using Virtual Cloud concepts. The propose model of Cooperative Cloud Computing encompasses the concepts of cloud federation and volunteer computing and is based on our Virtual Cloud architecture. The cooperative cloud computing can be performed at a global scale among universities and research centers (institutes) located in different continents. In this model, institutes get benefited with a much higher computing power available through cloud federation..
As the new computing service pattern of cloud computing develops rapidly, the security problem ofcloud computing has become a hot research topic. Before the user passes important data orcomputing task to the cloud, the user of the cloud may want to verify the trusted status of the platform which actually carries out the computing task in the cloud. And the remote attestation mechanism in Trusted Computing is suited for the cloud user's verification need. In this paper, the property-based remote attestation mechanism in Trusted Computing is imported into clouding computing, and a property-based remote attestation method oriented to cloud computing is designed based on the characteristics of cloud computing. In this method, through the attestation proxy, the remote attestation of the computing platform's security property is realized without disclosing the platform's configuration, and users can validate the security property of the actual computing platform in the virtual cloud computing environment..
Network-based cloud computing is rapidly expanding as an alternative to conventional office-basedcomputing. As cloud computing becomes more widespread, the energy consumption of the network and computing resources that underpin the cloud will grow. This is happening at a time when there is increasing attention being paid to the need to manage energy consumption across the entire information and communications technology (ICT) sector. While data center energy use has received much attention recently, there has been less attention paid to the energy consumption of the transmission and switching networks that are key to connecting users to the cloud. In this paper, we present an analysis of energy consumption in cloud computing. The analysis considers both public and private clouds, and includes energy consumption in switching and transmission as well as data processing and data storage. We show that energy consumption in transport and switching can be a significant percentage of total energy consumption in cloud computing. Cloud computing can enable more energy-efficient use of computing power, especially when the computing tasks are of low intensity or infrequent. However, under some circumstances cloud computing can consume more energy than conventional computingwhere each user performs all computing on their own personal computer (PC).
Cloud computing is considered to be the next generation of information technology framework. It is the next generation computing platforms that can provide dynamic resource pools, virtualization and high availability. The new character brings a lot of new security challenges which have not been taken into account completely in the current cloud computing system. As a consequence, to build a cloud computing data security system is the basis to build cloud computing security system. In this article, the cloud computing technology architecture and the cloud computing data security features are the first to be studied and considered, then the cloud computing data security model is raised. At last, the realization of data security model has been researched. The model adopts a multi-dimension architecture of three - layers defense. First of all, user authentication is required to ensure that user data cannot be tampered. Users who pass the anthentication can get relative operation on the user data, such as addition, modification, deletion. If the unauthorized user use illegal means to deceive the authentication system, the file entered the system encrypt and privacy defense levels. In this layer, user data is encrypted. If key has been got by the intruder. The user data cannot be got valid information even it is obtained through function of privacy protection. It is very important for commercial users of the cloud computing to protect their business secrets. The last is the file quick regeneration layer, user data can get maximum regeneration even it is damaged through rapid regeneration algorithm in this layer. Each layer accomplishes its own job and combines with others to ensure data security in the cloud computing.
Cloud computing provides computing resources as a service over a network. As rapid application of this emerging technology in real world, it becomes more and more important how to evaluate the performance and security problems that cloud computing confronts. Currently, modeling and simulation technology has become a useful and powerful tool in cloud computing research community to deal with these issues. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge, we review the existing results on modeling and simulation of cloud computing. We start from reviewing the basic concepts of cloud computing and its security issues, and subsequently review the existing cloud computing simulators. Furthermore, we indicate that there exist two types of cloud computing simulators, that is, simulators just based on software and simulators based on both software and hardware. Finally, we analyze and compare features of the existing cloud computing simulators.
With the advent internet in the 1990s to the present day facilities of ubiquitous computing, the internet has changed the computing world in a drastic way. It has traveled from the concept of parallelcomputing to distributed computing to grid computing and recently to cloud computing. Although the idea of cloud computing has been around for quite some time, it is an emerging field of computer science. Cloud computing can be defined as a computing environment where computing needs by one party can be outsourced to another party and when need be arise to use the computing power or resources like database or emails, they can access them via internet. Cloud computing is a recent trend in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and portable PCs into large data centers. The main advantage of cloud computing is that customers do not have to pay for infrastructure, its installation, required man power to handle such infrastructure and maintenance. In this paper we will discuss what makes all this possible, what is the architectural design of cloud computing and its applications.
This paper presents ongoing work to develop advanced education and training course on the CloudComputing technologies foundation and engineering by a cooperating group of universities and the professional education partners. The central part of proposed approach is the Common Body of Knowledge in Cloud Computing (CBK-CC) that defines the professional level of knowledge in the selected domain and allows consistent curricula structuring and profiling. The paper presents the structure of the course and explains the principles used for developing course materials, such as Bloom's Taxonomy applied for technical education, and andragogy instructional model for professional education and training. The paper explains the importance of using the strong technical foundation to build the course materials that can address interests of different categories of stakeholders and roles/responsibilities in the Cloud Computing services provisioning and operation. The paper provides a short description of summary of the used Cloud Computing related architecture concepts and models that allow consistent mapping between CBK-CC, stakeholder roles/responsibilities and required skills, explaining also importance of the requirements engineering stage that provides a context for cloudbased services design. The paper refers to the ongoing development of the educational course on Cloud Computing at the University of Amsterdam, University of Stavanger and provides suggestions for building advanced online training course for IT professionals.
Cloud computing has been a paradigm shift in the information technology domain. It offers potential benefits to users in terms of instant availability, scalability and resource sharing, while potentially posing security issues. Especially, recent events like Amazons system failure increased the concerns related to cloud computing. Given these security and reliability concerns , we explore the optimal decision rule for moving certain IT function to public clouds. We formulate the problem as an entrepreneurial decision for an optimal stopping time at which the entrepreneur shall migrate to the cloud computing paradigm. Two different models are presented. Recognizing that an important and specific issue related to different computing paradigm is the potential "security" risk posed by each technology, we consider security risks in both models. The first model approaches the optimal adoption problem from assessing the cloud computing adoption under project value uncertainty. The entrepreneur has the timing flexibility and solves his optimal adoption decision under uncertainty. The optimal adoption rule obtained is a threshold strategy. A firm should adopt the cloud computing only if the value from the adoption exceeds the threshold level. The second model builds on a comprehensive assessment of two differentcomputing paradigms. The entrepreneur can either keep the traditional on-site computing paradigm or migrate to the cloud computing paradigm. His problem is to make the paradigm shift optimally. We model such a problem as optimally swapping two "risky" assets, which refer to benefits of the traditional on-site computing paradigm and those of the cloud computing paradigm. The term "risky" captures the fact that actual benefits can only be resolved through time, and thus estimates of benefits are embedded with uncertainty. We obtain the optimal swapping rule as a threshold strategy, defined in terms of the two benefit ratio. A firm should only shift the part of its bus- ness to the cloud computingservice if the ratio, the benefit from the cloud computing paradigm over that from the traditional on-sitecomputing paradigm, exceeds the threshold. In both models, both the extent of riskiness (i.e. uncertainty) and the significance of security risks (both in terms of potential occurrence probability and the severity of damage) affect the threshold level, thus the entrepreneurial adoption decision..
Cloud computing is a latest and fast growing technology that offers an innovative, efficient and scalable business model for organizations to adopt various information technology resources i.e. software, hardware, network, storage, bandwidth etc. Cloud Computing is a jargon term without a commonly accepted non-ambiguous scientific or technical definition. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services. It has the capability to incorporate multiple internal and external cloud services together to provide high interoperability there can be multiple accounts associated with a single or multiple service provider (SPs). So, Security in terms of integrity is most important aspects in cloud computing environment. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the cloud security problem is presented. Also the different problem in a cloud computing system and their effect upon the different cloud users are analyzed. It is providing a comparably scalable, position independent. Low cost platform for client's data. Since cloud computing environment is constructed based on open Architecture and interface. Based on this analysis various computing system and their effect upon the system, upon organizations and also upon different cloud users are analyzed. It is providing a comparably scalable, position-independent, low cost platform for client's data. Since cloud computing environment is constructed based on open architecture and interface. Based on this analysis various researches have also presented a view of measures that can be taken to deal with the cloud security problem and prevention that must be taken into account by any organization and cloud users seeking investment in cloud computing..
A Cloud computing system provides infrastructure layer services to users by managing virtualized infrastructure resources. The infrastructure resources include CPU, hyper visor, storage, and networking. Each category of infrastructure resources is a subsystem in a cloud computing system. The cloud computing system coordinates infrastructure subsystems to provide services to users. Most current cloud computing systems lacks pluggability in their infrastructure subsystems and decision algorithms, which restricts the development of infrastructure subsystems and decision algorithms incloud computing system. A cloud computing system should have the flexibility to switch from one infrastructure subsystem to another, and one decision algorithm to another with ease. This paper describes Roystonea, a hierarchical distributed cloud computing system with plug gable component architecture. The component pluggability ability gives administrators the flexibility to use the most appropriate subsystem as they wish. The component pluggability of Roystonea is based on a specifically designed interfaces among Roystonea controlling system and infrastructure subsystems components. The component pluggability also encourages the development of infrastructure subsystems in cloud computing. Roystonea provides a test bed for designing decision algorithms used in cloud computing system. The decision algorithms are totally isolated from other components in Roystonea architecture, so the designers of the decision algorithms can focus on algorithm design without worrying about how his algorithm will interact with other Roystonea components. We believed that component pluggability will be one of the most important issues in the research of cloud computing system..
Cloud computing, despite its hype, is being widely deployed, with its dynamic scalability and usage of virtualized resources, in many organizations for several applications. It is envisioned that, in the near future, cloud computing will have a significant impact on the educational and learning environment, enabling their own users (i.e., learners, instructors, and administrators) to perform their tasks effectively with less cost by utilizing the available cloud-based applications offered by the cloud service providers. This paper discusses the use of cloud computing in the educational and learning arena, to be called “Education and Learning as a Service” (ELaaS), emphasizing its possible benefits and offerings. It is essential for an educational and learning organization, with its budget restrictions and sustainability challenges, to use the cloud formation best suited for a particular IT activity. The Jericho Forum proposes a cloud computing formation model, called the Cloud Cube Model (CCM), which is based on 4 criteria. To preserve the symmetry of the cube, a new cloud computing formation model, called the Complete Cloud Computing Formations (C3F), is proposed. The IT activities in the educational and learning organizations are then classified with respect to the two criteria: mission criticality and sensitivity. Each class is then mapped into the appropriate position in the C3F, creating ELaaS Quadrant. This essentially establishes a general conceptual framework for ELaaS..
Cloud computing is emerging as a prominent computing model. It provides a low-cost, highly accessible alternative to other traditional high-performance computing platforms. It also has many other benefits such as high availability, scalability, elasticity, and free of maintenance. Given these attractive features, it is very desirable if automated planning can exploit the large, affordable computational power of cloud computing. However, the latency in inter-process communication in cloud computing makes most existing parallel planning algorithms unsuitable for cloud computing. In this paper, we propose a portfolio stochastic search framework that takes advantage of and is suitable for cloud computing. We first study the running time distribution of Monte-Carlo Random Walk (MRW) search, a stochastic planning algorithm, and show that the running time distribution usually has remarkable variability. Then, we propose a portfolio search algorithm that is suitable for cloud computing, which typically has abundant computing cores but high communication latency between cores. Further, we introduce an enhanced portfolio with multiple parameter settings to improve the efficiency of the algorithm. We implement the portfolio search algorithm in both a local cloud and the Windows Azure cloud. Experimental results show that our algorithm achieves good, in many cases super linear, speedup in the cloud platforms. Moreover, our algorithm greatly reduces the running time variance of the stochastic search and improves the solution quality. We also show that our scheme is economically sensible and robust under processor failures..
Cloud computing has become increasingly popular by obviating the need for users to own and maintain complex computing infrastructures. However, due to their inherent complexity and large scale, production cloud computing systems are prone to various runtime problems caused by hardware and software faults and environmental factors. Autonomic anomaly detection is a crucial technique for understanding emergent, cloud-wide phenomena and self-managing cloud resources for system-level dependability assurance. To detect anomalous cloud behaviors, we need to monitor the cloud execution and collect runtime cloud performance data. These data consist of values of performance metrics for different types of failures, which display different correlations with the performance metrics. In this paper, we present an adaptive anomaly identification mechanism that explores the most relevant principal components of different failure types in cloud computing infrastructures. It integrates the cloudperformance metric analysis with filtering techniques to achieve automated, efficient, and accurate anomaly identification. The proposed mechanism adapts itself by recursively learning from the newly verified detection results to refine future detections. We have implemented a prototype of the anomaly identification system and conducted experiments in an on-campus cloud computing environment and by using the Google data center traces. Our experimental results show that our mechanism can achieve more efficient and accurate anomaly detection than other existing schemes..
The greatest environmental challenge today is global warming, which is caused by carbon emissions. Energy crisis brings green computing, and green computing needs algorithms and mechanisms to be redesigned for energy efficiency. Green IT refers to the study and practice of using computingresources in an efficient, effective and economic way. The various approaches of the green IT are Virtualization, Power Management, Material Recycling and Telecommuting. The basic principles ofcloud computing is to make the computing be assigned in a great number of distributed computers rather than local computer or remote server. In fact, cloud computing is an extend of Grid Computing, Distributed Computing and Parallel Computing. It's foreground is to provide secure, quick, convenient data storage and net computing service centered by internet. Currently, a large number of cloud computing systems waste a tremendous amount of energy and emit a considerable amount of carbon dioxide. Thus, it is necessary to significantly reduce pollution and substantially lower energy usage. The analysis of energy consumption in cloud computing consider both public and private clouds. Cloud computing with green algorithm can enable more energy-efficient use of computing power..
Cloud computing is a whole new paradigm that offers a non-traditional computing model for organizations to adopt Information Technology and related functions and aspects without upfront investment and with lower Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). Cloud computing opens doors to multiple, unlimited venues from elastic computing to on demand provisioning to dynamic storage and computingrequirement fulfillment. However, despite the potential gains achieved from the cloud computing, the security of an open-ended and rather freely accessible resource is still questionable which impacts the cloud adoption. The security problem becomes amplified under the cloud model as new dimensions enter into the problem scope related to the architecture, multi-tenancy, layer dependency, and elasticity. This paper introduces a detailed analysis of the cloud security problem. It investigates the problem of security from the cloud architecture perspective, the cloud characteristics perspective, cloud delivery model perspective, and the cloud stakeholder perspective. The paper investigates some of the key research challenges of implementing cloud-aware security solutions which can plausibly secure the ever-changing and dynamic cloud model. Based on this analysis it presents a derived detailed specification of the cloud security problem and key features that should be covered by any proposed security solution for cloud computing..
As a kind of emerging business computational model, Cloud Computing distribute computation task on the resource pool which consists of massive computers, accordingly ,the application systems can gain the computation strength, the storage space and software service according to its demand. Cloud computing can be viewed from two different aspects. One is about the cloud infrastructure which is the building block for the up layer cloud application. The other is of course the cloud application. By means of three technical methods, cloud computing has achieved two important goals for the distributed computing: high scalability and high availability. Scalability means that the cloud infrastructure can be expanded to very large scale even to thousands of nodes. Availability means that the services are available even when quite a number of nodes fail. This paper discusses the evolution process of cloud computing, the current technologies adopted in cloud computing, as well as the systems in enterprises. This paper introduced with emphasis the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, the cloud computing platform of Google and "blue cloud" of IBM, analyze and compare three kinds of cloud computing platform..
Summary form only given. Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC) allows multiple parties to perform computation on their private data to evaluate some function of their common interest. In this paradigm the individual data should be kept secret from other parties and the result of the computation should be available to all the parties. This subject of information security has created enormous interest among researchers. Many SMC models were devised and analyzed. The subject is becoming more relevant in this scenario of huge online transactions on the Internet. Many solutions, from earlier Millionaires Problem to recent Anonymity based computation on encrypted data are available in the literature. Cloud Computing is a paradigm shift from the distributed computing where an organization uses resources as service. This is a sort of "utility computing" where you pay-as-you-go like electricity bill. Cloud providers are the companies which manage large datacenters and have expertise of operating these datacenters. Cloud users are the organizations which use services from providers. Cloud users need not to deploy computing resources at their site. These resources are available from the cloud providers on utility basis and charged on usage basis. Thus an organization can improve efficiency while minimizing the expenditure and the operation overhead. They can focus on their core competencies. In this paradigm users send their data to the provider for computation and the result is provided by the provider. Many companies like Amazon, Google, IBM etc. are already in the market working as the cloud provider. As the services are gaining more popularity, concerns regarding the privacy of these data are also arising. They users of the cloud are worrying about the privacy of their data that has been supplied to the cloud provider. The solutions to these problems can be provided by the protocols of the SMC. In this tutorial, we propose SMC solution techniques that can be embedded while - designing architecture of cloud computing especially when multiple cloud providers or multiple cloud users jointly compute some function of their private data inputs. Each of the users or providers of the cloud is worried about the privacy of the individual data but due to the mutual interest all of them want to know the value of the common function. With our experience of developing protocols and devising algorithms for various SMC problems we anticipate a crucial role of SMC in cloud computing. For example consider a case where multiple cloud users jointly work on a project and utilize the services of the same cloud provider. All of them want to simultaneously evaluate their equations without revealing individual equations to one another. In such scenarios the SMC solutions can be highly useful to provide privacy. In this tutorial, we explore such scenarios while discussing various protocols of SMC and their applicability in cloud computing.
Information Technology infrastructure continues to grow with evolving technology. The invention of the Internet has increased the use of computer and the mobile device. Nowadays, many people in the world use these devices. As a result, a large amount of data stored device and each device in the Internet were required to be connected each other because of sharing information. New business model has emerged with the increase of data and the development of Internet and mobile technology. This new business model is referred to as cloud computing. The cloud computing offers many advantages, but there are also many disadvantages. The advantages are flexibility and scalability and better security and large enterprises. This paper identifies security threats focused on cloud computing which is an essential part of the companies that want to use cloud computing services. The fundamental risk factors particular the cloud are elaborated. Finally, this paper provides some solutions about security threats for enterprise and service provider for the cloud computing deployment in order to provide the security of information. This paper does not mention new idea or innovation about cloud computing. Purpose of this study is intended to be a guide for people who is interested in cloud computing and want to take advantage of the cloud computing services. .
Cloud computing is changing the way of developing, deploying and managing applications. However, as typical Internet-based applications, cloud computing services lack carrier-grade signaling control mechanism and cannot guaranty Quality of Service (QoS), which have actually become technical barriers for telecom operator to provide commercial public cloud services. On the other hand, as the core signaling architecture of Next Generation Networking (NGN), IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is facing the problem of the lack of innovative value-added services. This paper presents an architecture to support cloud computing services over IMS. In the proposed architecture, cloud services are regarded as the general IMS applications and then cloud clients are allowed to access cloud services under the control of Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) signaling and QoS mechanism of IMS. This paper introduces architecture overview and cloud service relevant functional components, and mainly discusses several key issues including cloud notification mechanism, QoS and charging control of IMS-based cloud computing services.
With rapid development of cloud computing, the need for an architecture to follow in developing cloud computing applications is necessary. Existing architectures lack the way cloud applications are developed. They focus on clouds' structure and how to use clouds as a tool in developing cloud computing applications rather than focusing on how applications themselves are developed using clouds. This paper presents a survey on key cloud computing concepts, definitions, characteristics, development phases, and architectures. Also, it proposes and describes a novel architecture, which aid developers to develop cloud computing applications in a systematic way. It discusses how cloud computing transforms the way applications are developed/delivered and describes the architectural considerations that developers must take when adopting and using cloud computing technology..
Cloud computing is the most popular and smart technology, among all other computing paradigm such as parallel computing, distributed computing, and grid computing. It is defined as on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable resources (e.g. network). The main idea of cloud is to provide on-demand computing services with high reliability, scalability and availability in a distributed environment. Outsourcing and extension of business through cloud has provided customer an ease of the local data storage and maintenance. However, the customer no longer has physical possession of the possibly large size of outsourced data. This draws a security concern on the data integrity protection in cloud computing especially for customers with constrained computing resources and capabilities. Security is one of the major factor that hampers the growth of cloud computing. An estimation of security risks in cloud computing systems is an essential part of the process of security measures. For a proper estimation of security risk requires a good knowledge about the probability distributions of different upcoming events. This paper focuses on security measures and simulation of security risk in cloud computing. Probability distribution model is used for simulation of possible security risk in cloud services.
Cloud computing that was introduced when local facilities could not any more satisfy access demands along with the increase of network bandwidth and diversity of services, breaks constraints of physical deployment and delivers varieties of services in its hardware/software virtualized manner. Being inherited the idea, the NaaS as a new presented research field ever since the cloud computing being introduced, delivers network itself as a kind of service under such circumstances. By its concept, the network utilization will no longer be restricted by physical network or local facilities, but is able to expropriate any network resources within the cloud once they are virtualization organized. Green Cloud simulation as one of the NS-2 cloud computing simulators, implements an energy-aware cloud computing scenario with infrastructures (switches, routers, links, etc.) virtualized in data center. In this paper, we discusses the Network as a Service (NaaS), a cloud architecture that delivers virtualized network as per demands from cloud user, with illustration of QoS-based Green Cloud simulation, that to present the behavior and performance of NaaS in cloud computing environment..
Cloud computing has changed the whole picture that distributed computing used to present e.g. Grid computing, server client computing. Cloud has given a new meaning to distributed, and off-premises computing. Although, Cloud offers great benefits, it also introduces a myriad of security threats to the information and data which is now being ported from on-premises to off-premises. Where cloud computing can help organizations accomplish more by paying less (in the longer run) and breaking the physical boundaries between IT infrastructure and its users, due to openness of accessible information and data relying on trust between cloud provider and customer, heightened security threats must be overcome in order to benefit fully from this new computing exemplar. Breach in the security of any component in the cloud can be both disaster for the organization (the customer) and defacing for the provider. This paper explores the security issues related to the cloud. The paper also discusses the existing security approaches to secure the cloud infrastructure and applications and their drawbacks. Finally, we explore some key research challenges of implementing new cloud-aware security solutions that can provide the likes of pre-emptive protection for complex and ever dynamic Cloud infrastructure, followed by conclusion where we try to entail the whole research and try to formulate a security strategy which will enable the Cloud providers and customers alike to fight against ever emerging security threats
Cloud computing technology which is next-generation architecture has created hype in IT and business world promising to deliver wide range of benefits. Gartner estimated that cloud market will surpass $148.8 billion by 2014. Despite the fact cloud computing technology remains for many an unfamiliar concept. Therefore, if cloud computing technology is to achieve its potential then there is need to have a clear understanding of various factors associated with its adoption by business. Cloud computing technology has already started impacting businesses and penetrated many areas from banks, automobile sector, education, logistics, wholesale, retail and health care. It is also emerging as a major enablers for the manufacturing industry that can transform the traditional business model, help it with product innovation with business strategy and create effective factory networks with collaboration. Adoption of cloud computing technology in supply chains of manufacturing industry will also improve performance in the form of better information visibility, cost reduction, and improved agility. For IS researchers, this study will outline factors associated with adaption of cloud computing technology in supply chains of manufacturing industry so that they will be in a position to advise the industry in the years to come. The paper will start by general introduction with an overview about cloud computing. Then, it will summarize the literature work that has been done so far with advantages of cloud computing technology. In next section, the theoretical framework will be described. Finally, the paper will close with a conclusion.
Cloud computing is one of the fascinating advancements in the computing technology. With its fashionable features, cloud deployment is well spread in a wide range of applications. Managing the cloud environment is a complex process because of the virtual nature of the cloud. Cloud management is different from the conventional network management in many aspects. This paper summarizes the functionalities and the importance of network management and reveals the effect of cloud computing over the conventional network management. The five functional areas defined by ISO for network management are mainly concentrated: fault, configuration, accounting, performance and security. Some of the issues faced by cloud computing and their effect in cloud performance have been discussed. Some principles for the network management to support cloud computing and to solve the issues of cloud computing are also suggested. As an important outcome of this academic work, the effects and impacts of cloud computing over network management policies have been delivered to a reasonable depth.
With the development of parallel computing, distributed computing, grid computing, a new computing model appeared. The concept of computing comes from grid, public computing and SaaS. It is a new method that shares basic framework. The basic principles of cloud computing is to make the computing be assigned in a great number of distributed computers, rather then local computer or remoter server. The running of the enterprise's data center is just like Internet. This makes the enterprise use the resource in the application that is needed, and access computer and storage system according to the requirement. This article introduces the background and principle of cloud computing, the character, style and actuality. This article also introduces the application field the merit of cloud computing, such as, it do not need user's high level equipment, so it reduces the user's cost. It provides secure and dependable data storage center, so user needn't do the awful things such storing data and killing virus, this kind of task can be done by professionals. It can realize data share through different equipments. It analyses some questions and hidden troubles, and puts forward some solutions, and discusses the future of cloud computing. Cloud computing is a computing style that provide power referenced with IT as a service. Users can enjoy the service even he knows nothing about the technology of cloud computing and the professional knowledge in this field and the power to control it..
A new model of hybrid cloud computing architecture based on cloud bus is proposed. The system is based on local private cloud, combined with one or more type(s) of public cloud(s). The internal structures of private cloud and public cloud are the same, including infrastructure and virtualization layer, cloud platforms layer, cloud bus layer, cloud application layer, the management center and storage centers. The layer of infrastructure and virtualization is designed to incorporate the underlying hardware resources into a virtual cluster, providing a variety of virtual resources to the upper layer. The layer of cloud platform is used to run Web applications or services, and carry application-specific development and application integration through its open interfaces. The cloud bus layer, consisting of a control bus, a number of node buses and adapters, is designed to manage and monitor the various services of the cloud platform layer. The proposed model of the architecture can accelerate the migration of the existing IT environments to cloud computing environments, reduce the investment, and make full use of IT resources.
Cloud computing has been hailed as the achievement of the long-held dream of computing as a utility and has the potential to transform a large part of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry. Cloud computing is both a business and an economic model which has been gaining popularity since 2006 and it is currently the most talked about technology in the ICT industry. Because it views hardware and software as commodities, the cloud is an example of a disruptive technology. It offers enterprises the opportunity to reduce hardware and software cost and the potential reduction of maintenance and support staff. Data centers and cloud computing services providers hope that the widespread adoption of the cloud will bring them more profit and they are actively promoting the technology. The cloud has had its share of controversy; ranging from the definition of cloud computing to its energy efficiency. This paper discusses one area of controversy; the energy efficiency of cloud computing. We outline previous contributions to the discussion of energy efficiency of cloud computing, provide a working definition of cloud computing and discuss its importance, which will grow as the technology matures and becomes well known..
Cloud computing is set of resources and services offered through the Internet. Cloud services are delivered from data centres located throughout the world. Cloud computing facilitates its consumers by providing virtual resources via internet. The rapid growth in field of "cloud computing" also increases severe security concerns. Security has remained a constant issue for Open Systems and internet, when we are talking about security, cloud really suffers. Lack of security is the only hurdle in wide adoption of cloud computing. Cloud computing is surrounded by many security issues like securing data and examining the utilization of cloud by the cloud computing vendors. This paper proposes a scheme to securely store and access of data via internet. We have used ECC based PKI for certificate procedure because the use of ECC significantly reduces the computation cost, message size and transmission overhead over RSA based PKI as 160-bit key size in ECC provides comparable security with 1024-bit key in RSA. We have designed Secured Cloud Storage Framework (SCSF). In this framework, users not only can securely store and access data in cloud but also can share data with multiple users through the unsecure internet in a secured way. This scheme can ensure the security and privacy of the data in the cloud.
Cloud computing provides people the way to share distributed resources and services that belong to different organizations or sites. Since cloud computing share distributed resources via the network in the open environment, thus it makes security problems important for us to develop the cloud computing application. In this paper, we pay attention to the security requirements in cloud computing environment. We proposed a method to build a trusted computing environment for cloud computing system by integrating the trusted computing platform into cloud computing system. We propose a model system in which cloud computing system is combined with trusted computing platform with trusted platform module. In this model, some important security services, including authentication, confidentiality and integrity, are provided in cloud computing system..
It is a great idea to make many normal computers together to get a super computer, and this computer can do a lot of things. This is the concept of cloud computing. Cloud computing is an emerging model of business computing. And it is becoming a development trend. This article compares cloud computing and grid computing. Internet has connected all the computers in the world. Grid computing has been put forward under this background. Its core concept is to complete computing based on compute grid, in it every computer will devote power. In recent years a new concept cloud computing has been put forward, it can connect millions of computers to a super cloud. This article also introduces the application field the merit of cloud computing, such as, it do not need user's high level equipment, so it reduces the user's cost. It provides secure and dependable data storage center, so user needn't do the awful things such storing data and killing virus, this kind of task can be done by professionals. It can realize data share through different equipments. The users need not know how the cloud runs. In this paper I describe the concept of cloud computing and grid computing and compare them..
Cloud Computing becomes the next generation architecture of IT Enterprise. In contrast to traditional solutions, Cloud computing moves the application software and databases to the large data centers, where the management of the data and services may not be fully trustworthy. This unique feature, however, raises many new security challenges which have not been well understood. In cloud computing, both data and software are fully not contained on the user's computer; Data Security concerns arising because both user data and program are residing in Provider Premises. Clouds typically have a single security architecture but have many customers with different demands. Every cloud provider solves this problem by encrypting the data by using encryption algorithms. This paper investigates the basic problem of cloud computing data security. We present the data security model of cloud computing based on the study of the cloud architecture. We improve data security model for cloud computing. We implement software to enhance work in a data security model for cloud computing. Finally apply this software in the Amazon EC2 Micro instance. .
With the rapid development of Cloud computing, more and more users deposit their data and application on the cloud. But the development of Cloud computing is hindered by many Cloud security problem. Cloud computing has many characteristics, e.g. multi-user, virtualization, scalability and so on. Because of these new characteristics, traditional security technologies can't make Cloud computing fully safe. Therefore, Cloud computing security becomes the current research focus and is also this paper's research direction. In order to solve the problem of data security in cloud computing system, by introducing fully homomorphism encryption algorithm in the cloud computing data security, a new kind of data security solution to the insecurity of the cloud computing is proposed and the scenarios of this application is hereafter constructed. This new security solution is fully fit for the processing and retrieval of the encrypted data, and effectively leading to the broad applicable prospect, the security of data transmission and the storage of the cloud computing.
Cloud computing is a highly scalable model for delivering information technology resources and applications, on demand, as a service, to end users through the network. In recent years, cloud computing has been adopted rapidly and extensively in industry. Notable public cloud services include Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Google App Engine, among others. There is a fast growing demand for professionals with cloud computing skills. However, the demand is not being fulfilled, partially due to the inability of educational institutions to keep up with technological advancements, as well as a lack of hands-on educational material. We have been developing portable virtual lab modules which can be used to teach basic cloud computing concepts and skills early and often. The labs run on virtual machines and can be ported between different courses and between different platforms. The virtual labs can be deployed in centralized or decentralized ways. To meet the learning outcomes, the students are expected to: (1) comprehend the fundamental concepts of cloud computing; (2) identify the building blocks of cloud computing systems; (3) understand the basic operation of open source cloud infrastructures; and (4) recognize commonly used, commercial cloud computing services and applications.
Over the past decade, high performance applications have embraced parallel programming and computing models, like video analysis for surveillance purpose. However due to the heterogeneous, opaque and dynamic nature of Cloud Computing, existing Cloud parallel framework like Hadoop/HPCC (with Job-keeper + Map-reduce behind) approach is not suitable to perform vision computing specific task on the cloud. Rhizome is a middle-ware as PAAS & IASS for building specific cloud vision computing applications, so as to convert a high performance application to an elastic cloud one, which may enable effective high performance and robust parallel computing especially for streaming like task e.g. vision computing within the cloud environment. Rhizome encourages use of simple MoC based concurrency patterns that are easy to understand and implement correctly, and built on an agency-like model with declarative specification of persistence, replication, and consistency and using lightweight transactions in cloud OS environment to support the development of reliable and scalable client + cloud software. The experimental assessment demonstrates a superior performance of the cloud vision computing application in Hadoop with the help of Rhizome, which provides substantial and consistent better programming easiness and system robustness
Cloud Computing is a type of computing which can be considered as a new era of computing. Cloud can be considered as a rapidly emerging new paradigm for delivering computing as a utility. In cloud computing various cloud consumers demand variety of services as per their dynamically changing needs. So it is the job of cloud computing to avail all the demanded services to the cloud consumers. But due to the availability of finite resources it is very difficult for cloud providers to provide all the demanded services. From the cloud providers' perspective cloud resources must be allocated in a fair manner. So, it's a vital issue to meet cloud consumers' QoS requirements and satisfaction. This paper mainly addresses key performance issues, challenges and techniques for resource allocation in cloud computing. It also focuses on the key issues related to these existing resource allocation techniques and summarizes them.
Cloud computing emerges as one of the hottest topic in field of information technology. Cloud computing is based on several other computing research areas such as HPC, virtualization, utility computing and grid computing. In order to make clear the essential of cloud computing, we propose the characteristics of this area which make cloud computing being cloud computing and distinguish it from other research areas. The cloud computing has its own conceptional, technical, economic and user experience characteristics. The service oriented, loose coupling, strong fault tolerant, business model and ease use are main characteristics of cloud computing. Clear insights into cloud computing will help the development and adoption of this evolving technology both for academe and industry.
Cloud computing has been widely adopted in a large variety of applications. This brings besides others also many new challenges in the fields of security and reliability. Like any other security and correctness sensitive computer system, it is beneficial to fully verify cloud solutions to ensure their correctness. Verification and validation of distributed systems has been widely studied, however, it has not been analyzed whether verification approaches in distributed systems can be directly applied to cloud computing or not. In this study, we present a comparison of verification requirements for distributed computing and cloud computing to establish the need of a specialized verification model/architecture for cloud computing. We differentiate the verification in distributed and cloud systems based on their business models, architecture models, programming models and security models. We argue that service level agreements (SLAs), which span across the cloud, become more critical in the verification process. Based on our study, we present an abstract verification model focusing specifically on cloud computing, paving the way to an implementation of a viable verification model which can practically verify complex cloud systems..
The emergence of cloud computing, envisioned as the future generation of computing model for its major advantages in on-demand self-service, ubiquitous network access, location independent resource pooling and transference of risk, has established a trend towards building massive, energy-hungry and geographically distributed data centers. It is the latest developments of computing models after distributed computing, parallel processing and grid computing. It achieves multi-level virtualization and abstraction through effective integration of variety of computing, storage, data, applications and other resources, users can be easy to use powerful computing and storage capacity of cloud computing only need to connect to the network. It can also concentrate all computation resources and manage automatically through the software without intervene. In this paper, we highlight the different aspects of cloud computing for finding the actuality of the future generation of commuting in the form of cloud computing after mainframe based computing, personal computing, client server based computing and web server based computing..
The industry-driven evolution of cloud computing tends to obfuscate the common underlying architectural concepts of cloud offerings and their implications on hosted applications. Patterns are one way to document such architectural principles and to make good solutions to reoccurring (architectural) cloud challenges reusable. To capture cloud computing best practice from existing cloud applications and provider-specific documentation, we propose to use an elaborated pattern format enabling abstraction of concepts and reusability of knowledge in various use cases. We present a detailed step-by-step pattern identification process supported by a pattern authoring toolkit. We continuously apply this process to identify a large set of cloud patterns. In this paper, we introduce two new cloud patterns we identified in industrial scenarios recently. The approach aims at cloud architects, developers, and researchers alike to also apply this pattern identification process to create traceable and well-structured pieces of knowledge in their individual field of expertise. As entry point, we recap challenges introduced by cloud computing in various domains..
Cloud Computing has emerged as a major information and communications technology trend and has been proved as a key technology for market development and analysis for the users of several field. The practice of computing across two or more data centers separated by the Internet is growing in popularity due to an explosion in scalable computing demands. However, one of the major challenges that faces the cloud computing is how to secure and protect the data and processes the data of the user. The security of the cloud computing environment is a new research area requiring further development by both the academic and industrial research associations. While cloud-bursting is addressing this process of scaling up and down across data centers. To provide secure and reliable services in cloud computing environment is an important issue. One of the security issues is how to reduce the impact of denial-of-service (DoS) attack or distributed denial-of-service (DDoS)in this environment. In this paper we survey several aspects of cloud computing and the security concerns and proposed a novel approach that is Cloud Bursting Brokerage and Aggregation (CBBA). In this approach we consider three clouds for bursting and aggregation operation. We also used secure sharing mechanism so that the cloud resources are shared among different cloud environment. .
Everyone is talking about “the cloud.” But what does it mean? Business applications are moving to the cloud. It’s not just a fad—the shift from traditional software models to the Internet has steadily gained momentum over the last 10 years. Looking ahead, the next decade of cloud computing promises new ways to collaborate everywhere, through mobile devices
Traditional business applications have always been very complicated and expensive. The amount and variety of hardware and software required to run them are daunting. You need a whole team of experts to install, configure, test, run, secure, and update them.When you multiply this effort across dozens or hundreds of apps, it’s easy to see why the biggest companies with the best IT departments aren’t getting the apps they need. Small and mid-sized businesses don’t stand a chance.
With cloud computing, you eliminate those headaches because you’re not managing hardware and software—that’s the responsibility of an experienced vendor like salesforce.com. The shared infrastructure means it works like a utility: You only pay for what you need, upgrades are automatic, and scaling up or down is easy.Cloud-based apps can be up and running in days or weeks, and they cost less. With a cloud app, you just open a browser, log in, customize the app, and start using it. Businesses are running all kinds of apps in the cloud, like customer relationship management (CRM), HR, accounting, and much more. Some of the world’s largest companies moved their applications to the cloud with salesforce.com after rigorously testing the security and reliability of our infrastructure.As cloud computing grows in popularity, thousands of companies are simply rebranding their non-cloud products and services as “cloud computing.” Always dig deeper when evaluating cloud offerings and keep in mind that if you have to buy and manage hardware and software, what you’re looking at isn’t really cloud computing but a false cloud.
The latest innovations in cloud computing are making our business applications even more mobile and collaborative, similar to popular consumer apps like Facebook and Twitter. As consumers, we now expect that the information we care about will be pushed to us in real time, and business applications in the cloud are heading in that direction as well. With Cloud 2, keeping up with your work is as easy as keeping up with your personal life on Facebook.
A model for delivering information technology services in which resources are retrieved from the internet through web-based tools and applications, rather than a direct connection to a server. Data and software packages are stored in servers. However, cloud computing structure allows access to information as long as an electronic device has access to the web. This type of system allows employees to work remotely. Cloud computing is so named because the information being accessed is found in the "clouds", and does not require a user to be in a specific place to gain access to it. Companies may find that cloud computing allows them to reduce the cost of information management, since they are not required to own their own servers and can use capacity leased from third parties. Additionally, the cloud-like structure allows companies to upgrade software more quickly.As cloud services mature and add features, they increasingly overlap, signaling heightened competition in both the consumer and enterprise markets. Smaller cloud players must be nimble and adaptive to avoid getting trampled.The cloud is the latest battleground of the tech titans across the spectrum of enterprise and consumer business, but maturation, a desire for market hegemony and technology evolution naturally lead to new features and that means formerly disparate services are encroaching upon one another. Cloud services are the latest realm in the technology industry’s quest to build compelling, defensible and sticky ecosystems. As such, the dominant tech giants will continue to expand their reach and further intrude on each other’s turf in both the enterprise and consumer markets. The jostling will create plenty of news and be fun to watch, but smaller cloud players must be nimble and adaptive to avoid getting trampled.Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand, as with the electricity grid.Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization, Service-oriented architecture and utility computing. Details are abstracted from consumers, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet, and it typically involves over-the-Internet provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources. It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. This frequently takes the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if it were a program installed locally .