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Cheating Prevention in Visual Cryptography

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IEEE TITLE



Cheating Prevention in Visual Cryptography



IEEE ABSTRACT


Visual cryptography (VC) is a method of encrypting a secret image into shares such that stacking a sufficient number of shares reveals the secret image. Shares are usually presented in transparencies. Each participant holds a transparency. Most of the previous research work on VC focuses on improving two parameters: pixel expansion and contrast. In this paper, we studied the cheating problem in VC and extended VC. We considered the attacks of malicious adversaries who may deviate from the scheme in any way. We presented three cheating methods and applied them on attacking existent VC or extended VC schemes. We improved one cheat-preventing scheme. We proposed a generic method that converts a VCS to another VCS that has the property of cheating prevention. The overhead of the conversion is near optimal in both contrast degression and pixel expansion.



Cheat Prevention technique using Image Stamper Algorithm for Secure Image data Sharing


ABSTRACT


Conventional visual secret sharing schemes generate noise-like random pixels on shares to hide secret images. It suffers a management problem, because of which dealers cannot visually identify each share. This problem is solved by the extended visual cryptography scheme (EVCS), which adds a meaningful cover image in each share. However, the previous approaches involving the EVCS for general access structures suffer from a pixel expansion problem. In addition, the visual cryptography (VC)-based approach needs a sophisticated codebook design for various schemes. In this paper, we propose a general approach to solve the above mentioned problems; the approach can be used for binary secret images in non computer-aided decryption environments. The proposed approach consists of two phases. In the first phase, based on a given access structure, we construct meaningless shares using an optimization technique and the construction for conventional VC schemes. In the second phase, cover images are added in each share directly by a stamping algorithm. The experimental results indicate that a solution to the pixel expansion problem of the EVCS for GASs is achieved. Moreover, the display quality of the recovered image is very close to that obtained using conventional VC schemes.


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Related URL’s for reference



[1] An Improved Visual Cryptography Scheme for Secret Hiding


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1644637&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D1644637



Visual cryptography is based on cryptography where n images are encoded in a way that only the human visual system can decrypt the hidden message without any cryptographic computations when all shares are stacked together. This paper presents an improved algorithm based on Chang's and Yu visual cryptography scheme for hiding a colored image into multiple colored cover images. This scheme achieves lossless recovery and reduces the noise in the cover images without adding any computational complexity.



[2]Visual Cryptography (VC) with non-expanded shadow images: Hilbert-curve approach


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4565080&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4565080



Visual cryptography (VC) was introduced by Naor and Shamir. In general, a (k, n)-threshold scheme shares a given secret image S among n so-called shadow images. People can "view" the secret image by simply stacking any k of these n shadows (k < n is a threshold value). In most of the reported VC schemes, the size of each shadow is greater than that of S. This paper, we use Hilbert curve and two queues to present a VC scheme with the following properties: (1). Each shadow image is as small as the input image S. (2). Many gracious (k, n) contrast-optimal algorithms can be directly and easily applied to our scheme. (3) Image quality is competitive.



[3]A Novel Visual Cryptography Scheme


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4777337&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4777337



With the advent of internet, various online attacks has been increased and among them the most popular attack is phishing. Phishing is an attempt by an individual or a group to get personal confidential information such as passwords, credit card information from unsuspecting victims for identity theft, financial gain and other fraudulent activities. Fake websites which appear very similar to the original ones are being hosted to achieve this. In this paper we have proposed a new approach named as "A Novel Anti-phishing framework based on visual cryptography "to solve the problem of phishing. Here an image based authentication using Visual Cryptography is implemented. The use of visual cryptography is explored to preserve the privacy of an image captcha by decomposing the original image captcha into two shares (known as sheets) that are stored in separate database servers(one with user and one with server) such that the original image captcha can be revealed only when both are simultaneously available; the individual sheet images do not reveal the identity of the original image captcha. Once the original image captcha is revealed to the user it can be used as the password. Using this website cross verifies its identity and proves that it is a genuine website before the end users.



[4]A Novel Anti phishing framework based on visual cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6175228



With the advent of internet, various online attacks has been increased and among them the most popular attack is phishing. Phishing is an attempt by an individual or a group to get personal confidential information such as passwords, credit card information from unsuspecting victims for identity theft, financial gain and other fraudulent activities. Fake websites which appear very similar to the original ones are being hosted to achieve this. In this paper we have proposed a new approach named as "A Novel Anti-phishing framework based on visual cryptography "to solve the problem of phishing. Here an image based authentication using Visual Cryptography is implemented. The use of visual cryptography is explored to preserve the privacy of an image captcha by decomposing the original image captcha into two shares (known as sheets) that are stored in separate database servers(one with user and one with server) such that the original image captcha can be revealed only when both are simultaneously available; the individual sheet images do not reveal the identity of the original image captcha. Once the original image captcha is revealed to the user it can be used as the password. Using this website cross verifies its identity and proves that it is a genuine website before the end users.



[5]Recovering secret image in Visual Cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5739381&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5739381



Security has become an inseparable issue even in the field of space technology. Visual Cryptography is the study of mathematical techniques related aspects of Information Security which allows Visual information to be encrypted in such a way that their decryption can be performed by the human visual system, without any complex cryptographic algorithms. This technique represents the secret image by several different shares of binary images. It is hard to perceive any clues about a secret image from individual shares. The secret message is revealed when parts or all of these shares are aligned and stacked together. In this paper we provide an overview of the emerging Visual Cryptography (VC) techniques used in the secure transfer of the thousands of images collected by the satellite which are stored in image library and sent to Google for use on Google Earth and Google maps. The related work is based on the recovering of secret image using a binary logo which is used to represent the ownership of the host image which generates shadows by visual cryptography algorithms. An error correction-coding scheme is also used to create the appropriate shadow. The logo extracted from the half-toned host image identifies the cheating types. Furthermore, the logo recovers the reconstructed image when shadow is being cheated using an image self-verification scheme based on the Rehash technique which rehash the halftone logo for effective self verification of the reconstructed secret image without the need for the trusted third party(TTP).



[6]Non-expanded visual cryptography scheme with authentication


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6512319&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6512319



In recent years, a crucial issue is the manner in which to safely transmit the secret information and prevent the detection of information. An extended visual cryptography with authentication technology for the original image was proposed in previous studies. Fang and Lin's scheme [3] combine the principle of traditional visual cryptography with authentication characteristic, when we fix the first share image and shift the other share image for certain unit, we can obtain the extra confidential data. But in traditional visual cryptography, secret pixels are expanded to cause the size of the recovered image is larger than the original one. So this study combined the non-expanded scheme with the extra ability of hiding confidential data to prevent the detection of information.



[7]Novel authentication system using visual cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6141416&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6141416



An array of encryption techniques has been proposed for providing data security. However, most of the traditional cryptography methods require complex algorithms for encryption and decryption. Visual cryptography is a technique which provides confidentiality without any cryptographic knowledge or complex computations. Visual information (e.g. printed text, hand-written notes, pictures, etc.) is encrypted by decomposing it into several images, called shares, in such a way that decryption can be done by human visual system with stacking of the shares. Some important goals while developing a Visual Cryptography scheme is to have (i)optimum number of shares, (ii)good quality of reconstructed image and (iii)keeping the size of share small. This paper aims to provide a comparative study of various Visual Cryptographic schemes based on pixel expansion, no of shares, size and quality of reconstructed image, etc and some real-life applications of visual cryptography. A new authentication system has been proposed which uses the technique of visual cryptography to improve the security level of existing schemes. The application of the system in financial domain is discussed.



[8]Color image cryptography scheme based on visual cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6024584



A new cryptographic scheme proposed for securing color image based on visual cryptography scheme. A color image to be protected and a binary image used as key to encrypt and decrypt are taken as input. A secret color image which needs to be communicated is decomposed into three monochromatic images based on YCbCr color space. Then these monochromatic images are converted into binary image, and finally the obtained binary images are encrypted using binary key image, called as share-1 to obtain binary cipher images. To encrypt Exclusive OR operation is done between binary key image and three half-tones of secret color image separately. These binary images are combined to obtain share-2. In decryption the shares are decrypted, then the recovered binary images are inverse half toned and combined to get secret color image. This scheme is more efficient for communicating natural images across diffident channel.



[9]Contrast-Enhanced Visual Cryptography Schemes Based on Additional Pixel Patterns


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5656468&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5656468



Visual cryptography is a kind of secret image sharing scheme that uses the human visual system to perform the decryption computations. A visual cryptography scheme allows confidential messages to be encrypted into k-out-of-n secret sharing schemes. Whenever the number of participants from the group (n) is larger than or equal to the predetermined threshold value (k), the confidential message can be obtained by these participants. Contrast is one of the most important parameters in visual cryptography schemes. Usually, the reconstructed secret image will be darker (through contrast degradation) than the original secret image. The proposed scheme achieves better contrast and reduces the noise in the reconstructed secret image without any computational complexity. In this method, additional pixel patterns are used to improve the contrast of the reconstructed secret image. By using additional pixel patterns for the white pixels, the contrast of the reconstructed secret image can be improved than in the case of existing visual cryptography schemes.



[10]A novel extended visual cryptography scheme using one shared image


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5688767&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5688767



In this paper, a novel extended visual cryptography scheme is presented. Differ from any existing visual cryptography scheme, the proposed scheme encodes one secret image into one shared image with innocent-looking. The secret image is visually revealed by copying the share, shifting the copy and superimposing the shifted copy and the original share together. The proposed scheme has the advantages of resisting geometry distortion, easy recognition and management. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and security of the proposed scheme.



[11]Robust video watermarking scheme based on visual cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6409198&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6409198



A novel video watermarking scheme based on visual cryptography and scene change detection in discrete wavelet transform domain is proposed. We start with a complete survey of the current image and video watermarking technologies, and have noticed that majority of the existing schemes are not capable of resisting all attacks. We propose the idea to use different parts of a single watermark into different scenes of a video for generation of the owner's share from the original video based on the frame mean in same scene and the binary watermark, and generation of the identification share based on the frame mean of probably attacked video. These two shares after stacking can reveal the copyright ownership. Experiments are conducted to verify the robustness through a series of experiments.



[12]An asymmetric watermarking scheme based on visual cryptography



http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=891692&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D891692



Digital watermarking is a very active research area for copyright protection of electronic documents and media. A visual cryptographic approach is used to generate two random shares of a watermark: one is embedded into the cover-image and another is kept as a secret key for the later watermark extraction. The watermark can be extracted by simply superimposing the key share over the stego-image. This asymmetric digital watermark is specially designed and is not easily changed or removed. But, it is very convenient to be extracted. The embedded digital watermark by this approach seems robust after several attacks are performed on the stego-image.



[13]Visual Cryptography in Internet Voting System


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6653684&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6653684



Internet Voting System (IVS) Using Visual Cryptography (VC) aims at providing a facility to cast vote for critical and confidential internal corporate decisions. It has the flexibility to allow casting of vote from any remote place, even when key stakeholders of election process are not available at workplace. This is enabled by leveraging and implementing the features provided by the VC in IVS. The election is held in full confidentiality by applying appropriate security measures to allow the voter to vote for any participating candidate only if he logs into the system by entering the correct password which is generated by merging the two shares (Black & White dotted Images)using VC scheme. Where, Administrator (Election officer) sends share 1 to voter e-mail id before election and share 2 will be available in the voting system for his login during election. Voter will get the secret password to cast his vote by combining share 1 and share 2 using VC. Visual Cryptography (VC) is a secret sharing scheme in which an image is converted into shares. No information can be revealed by observing any share (Black & White dotted Image). The information about the original image (Voter Password) will be revealed only after stacking sufficient number of shares. There are various schemes present in VC, 2 out of 2, k out of n, n out of n, etc. In the proposed method, IVS with 2-out-of-2 VC has been used for an efficient authentication voting system. Even if the hacker gets one share of the password, it is impossible to get the other share of the password, as it will be sent to the E-Mail Id of the voter. Thus IVS provides two way securities to the voting system, which is very much in need.



[14]Property Analysis of XOR-Based Visual Cryptography



http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6575153



A (k,n) visual cryptographic scheme (VCS) encodes a secret image into n shadow images (printed on transparencies) distributed among n participants. When any k participants superimpose their transparencies on an overhead projector (OR operation), the secret image can be visually revealed by a human visual system without computation. However, the monotone property of OR operation degrades the visual quality of reconstructed image for OR-based VCS (OVCS). Accordingly, XOR-based VCS (XVCS), which uses XOR operation for decoding, was proposed to enhance the contrast. In this paper, we investigate the relation between OVCS and XVCS. Our main contribution is to theoretically prove that the basis matrices of (k,n)-OVCS can be used in (k,n)-XVCS. Meantime, the contrast is enhanced 2(k-1) times.



[15]Progressive visual cryptography with watermarking for meaningful shares


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6526443&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6526443



Progressive Visual Cryptography (PVC) is a special encryption technique which can be utilized to recover the secret image gradually by superimposing more and more shares. If we only have a few pieces of shares, we could get an outline of the secret image; by increasing the number of the shares being stacked, the details of the hidden information can be revealed progressively. PVC using unexpanded shares regenerates images of high quality. But this method is insecure as the shares generated are noise like images and have more interest of hackers as they treat them as critical information in the transmission. If the random looking shares are enveloped into some meaningful images the interest of hackers can be reduced. In the proposed method, a digital watermarking technique is used to generate meaningful shares. The secret image shares are watermarked with different cover images and are transmitted. At the receiving side the cover images are extracted from the shares and stacked one by one which reveals the secret image progressively. This scheme provides a more efficient way to hide images in different meaningful shares providing high security and recovered image with high contrast.



[16]Joint visual cryptography and watermarking


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1394365&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D1394365



In this paper, we discuss how to use the watermarking technique for visual cryptography. Both halftone watermarking and visual cryptography involve a hidden secret image. However, their concepts are different. For visual cryptography, a set of shared binary images is used to protect the content of the hidden image. The hidden image can only be revealed when enough shared images are obtained. For watermarking, the hidden image is usually embedded in a single halftone image while preserving the quality of the watermarked halftone image. In this paper, we propose a joint visual-cryptography and watermarking (JVW) algorithm that has the merits of both visual cryptography and watermarking.



[17]Securing Visual Cryptographic shares using Public Key Encryption


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6514382&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6514382



The Visual Cryptography Scheme is a secure method that encrypts a secret document or image by breaking it into shares. A distinctive property of Visual Cryptography Scheme is that one can visually decode the secret image by superimposing shares without computation. By taking the advantage of this property, third person can easily retrieve the secret image if shares are passing in sequence over the network. The project presents an approach for encrypting visual cryptographically generated image shares using Public Key Encryption. RSA algorithm is used for providing the double security of secret document. Thus secret share are not available in their actual form for any alteration by the adversaries who try to create fake shares. The scheme provides more secure secret shares that are robust against a number of attacks & the system provides a strong security for the handwritten text, images and printed documents over the public network.



[18]A Lossless Tagged Visual Cryptography Scheme


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6799194



As one of the most efficient multi-secret visual cryptography (MVC) schemes, the tagged visual cryptography (TVC) is capable of hiding tag images into randomly selected shares. However, the encoding processes of TVC and other MVC schemes bring distortion to shares, which definitely lowers the visual quality of the decoded secret image. This letter proposes an extended TVC scheme, named as lossless TVC (LTVC). Specifically, “lossless” means that the proposed LTVC scheme encodes the tag image without affecting the rebuilt secret image, i.e., the decoded secret image of LTVC has the same visual quality with that of the conventional VC scheme . Moreover, we propose the probabilistic LTVC (P-LTVC) to solve the potential security problem of LTVC. Finally, the superiority of the proposed scheme is experimentally verified.



[19]Data Hiding in Image Size Invariant Visual Cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4603214&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4603214



This paper proposes a scheme to hide some confidential data in image size invariant visual cryptography. The data hiding processing is synchronized with the secret image encryption. The basic property of the conventional visual cryptography is well maintained in our scheme. That is, the secret information can be decrypted by stacking the two transparencies. Besides, the hidden data can be accurately retrieved and the secret image can be losslessly reconstructed, both with XOR operations. Experimental results show our scheme is simple and effective.



[20]A New Copyright Protection Scheme with Visual Cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4813522&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4813522



This paper proposes a new efficient and secure copyright protection scheme for digital watermarking by using visual cryptography technique. The proposed scheme has the following merits compare with previous related schemes: (1) The proposed scheme uses simple codebook to generate a watermarked image. (2) The proposed scheme does not need to expand the watermark image. (3) The proposed scheme eliminates two security problems on the previous Lou et al.psilas scheme which that the problem of stability of relationship between discrete wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients and the problem of ambiguity of watermark verification. As a result, the proposed scheme is more efficient and secure compare with previous related schemes.



[21]Design of hierarchical visual cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6493182&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6493182



This paper describes the concept of hierarchical visual cryptography. The key idea behind hierarchical visual cryptography is to encrypt the secret information in number of levels. As the number of levels in hierarchical visual cryptography increases, the secrecy of data tends to increase. An intelligent authentication system is also proposed using hierarchical visual cryptography. The shares generated out of Hierarchical visual cryptography are found to be random giving no information. The expansion ratio is also reduced to 1:2 from 1:4.



[22]Offline QR Code Authorization Based on Visual Cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6079541&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6079541



It is popular to use mobile phone daily in modern life. Among the numerous applications provided by mobile phone, barcode utility is one of the important branches. Many companies supply barcode tools for mobile phones. For example, Google's mobile Android operating system supports QR codes by natively including the barcode scanner in some models, and the browser supports URI redirection function which allows QR codes to send metadata to the applications on the device. After investigated the supplied applications on mobile devices, most of the products exhibit information accessible to every user. Differ from the traditional applications of QR Code. This paper proposes an offline authentication mechanism for QR codes. Based on the technology of visual cryptography, it is possible to check the identity accessing to the QR codes and to control the permission to the protected data.



[23]Visual cryptography for print and scan applications


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1329727&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D1329727



Visual cryptography is not much in use in spite of possessing several advantages. One of the reasons for this is the difficulty of use in practice. The shares of visual cryptography are printed on transparencies which needed to be superimposed. However, it is not very easy to do precise superposition due to the fine resolution as well as printing noise. Furthermore, many visual cryptography applications need to print shares on paper in which scanning of the share is necessary. The print and scan process can introduce noise as well which can make the alignment difficult. We consider the problem of precise alignment of printed and scanned visual cryptography shares. Due to vulnerabilities in the spatial domain, we have developed a frequency domain alignment scheme. We employ the Walsh transform to embed marks in both of the shares so as to find the alignment position of these shares. Our experimental results show that our technique can be useful in print and scan applications.



[24]Halftone visual cryptography with color shares


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6468628&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6468628



Halftone visual cryptography (HVC) is a visual sharing scheme where a secret image is encoded into halftone shares taking meaningful visual information. In this paper, a HVC construction method is proposed that can encode a secret halftone image into color halftone shares. The secret image is concurrently embedded into color halftone shares while these shares are halftoned by constrained vector error diffusion. The proposed method is able to generate halftone shares showing natural color images with high image quality.



[25]Visual Cryptography for General Access Structure by Multi-pixel Encoding with Variable Block Size


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4732841&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4732841



Multi-pixel encoding is an emerging method in visual cryptography for that it can encode more than one pixel for each run. However, in fact its encoding efficiency is still low. This paper presents a novel multi-pixel encoding which can encode variable number of pixels for each run. The length of encoding at one run is equal to the number of the consecutive same pixels met during scanning the secret image. The proposed scheme can work well for general access structure and chromatic images without pixel expansion. The experimental results also show that it can achieve high efficiency for encoding and good quality for overlapped images.



[26]Visual cryptography based multiparty copyright protect scheme


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5486685&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



This paper applies visual cryptography for copyright protection. A multiparty scheme is presented for coowners of digital image. The basic concepts of visual cryptography are explained at first. Then by comparing with reference, a scheme for coowners is described. Next, key points in schemes are listed including halftone and progressive algorithms. At last examples are listed to show the whole procedure.



[27]Sheltered iris attestation by means of Visual Cryptography (SIA-VC)


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6215920&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



Biometric techniques consists of uniquely identifying a person based on their physical characteristic or behavioral characteristic. It is mainly used for authentication purpose. Iris is one of the most powerful technique among all biometrics because of its uniqueness and stability. For authentication, the feature template in the database and the user template should be the same. Storing the template in the database securely is troublesome, because it can be compromised. In order to overcome this issue, in this paper a new method for securely storing the template in the database is proposed. This method uses Visual Cryptography (VC) concept and will generate shares, that shares will be stored in the database. The proposed Visual Cryptography fashion will generate meaningful shares which overcomes the problem in existing methods. Thus this new operandi will provide a great means of security and an extravagance layer for endorsement.



[28]A new color visual cryptography scheme with perfect contrast


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6694638&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



In this paper, we propose a new color visual cryptography scheme based on the modified visual cryptography. This scheme can share a color secret image over n-1 arbitrary natural images and one noise-like share image. Instead of altering the contents of natural images, the encryption process extracts feature images from each natural image. In such a way, the proposed approach can effectively reduce the transmission risk and solve the management problems. Moreover, this approach avoids the pixel expansion problem and makes it possible to recover secret images without any distortion. Thus, the proposed scheme can share b&w, gray-level or color images in a secret way and is easy to implement.



[29]Image Hatching for Visual Cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5319329&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



Image hatching (or non-photorealistic line-art) is a technique widely applied in the printing or engraving of currency. Diverse styles of brush strokes have previously been adopted for different areas of an image to create textures and shading. Because there is no continuous tone within these types of images, we propose a multi-level scheme, which uses different textures based on a threshold level. These textures are then applied to the different levels and are then combined to build up the final image. We propose a technique by which one can hide a secret using visual cryptography (VC) within the hatched images. Visual cryptography provides a very powerful means by which one secret can be distributed into two or more pieces known as shares. When the shares are superimposed exactly together, the original secret can be discovered without computer participation.



[30]An Improved Visual Cryptography Scheme for Secret Hiding


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1644637&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography


Visual cryptography is based on cryptography where n images are encoded in a way that only the human visual system can decrypt the hidden message without any cryptographic computations when all shares are stacked together. This paper presents an improved algorithm based on Chang's and Yu visual cryptography scheme for hiding a colored image into multiple colored cover images. This scheme achieves lossless recovery and reduces the noise in the cover images without adding any computational complexity.



[31] Generalized Random Grid and Its Applications in Visual Cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6570506&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



Random grid (RG) is a method to implement visual cryptography (VC) without pixel expansion. However, a reconstructed secret with lower visual quality reveals in RG-based VC due to the fact that average light transmission of a share is fixed at 1/2. In this work, we introduce the concept of generalized RG, where the light transmission of a share becomes adjustable, and adopt generalized RG to implement different VC schemes. First, a basic algorithm, a (2,2) generalized RG-based VC, is devised. Based on the (2,2) scheme, two VC schemes including a (2,n) generalized RG-based VC and a (n,n) xor-based meaningful VC are constructed. The two derived algorithms are designed to solve different problems in VC. In the (2,n) scheme, recovered image quality is further improved. In the (n,n) method, meaningful shares are constructed so that the management of shadows becomes more efficient, and the chance of suspicion on secret image encryption is reduced. Moreover, superior visual quality of both the shares and recovered secret image is achieved. Theoretical analysis and experimental results are provided as well, demonstrating the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed algorithms.



[32]Maintaining the secrecy in visual cryptography schemes


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5941910&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



Visual cryptography schemes suffer from the drawback of large pixel expansion of share images and bad visual quality of the recovered image. To provide secrecy, we go for pixel expansion and increasing number of shares, this causes the bad visual quality of the recovered image. In this paper, we construct (n, n)-VCS and OR and XOR operations are used for share creation and stacking process, which proves better in contrast and pixel expansion. The proposed method uses additional matrix to increase the secrecy of the message in XOR operation.



[33]Image protection based on visual cryptography and statistical property


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5967737&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



In this paper, a novel intellectual property protection scheme for digital images based on visual cryptography and statistical property is proposed. The result of comparing two pixels that are selected randomly from the host image determines the content of the master share. Then, the master share and the watermark are used to generate the ownership share according to the encryption rules of visual cryptography. Our method does not need to alter the original image and can identify the ownership without restoring to the original image. Besides, our method allows multiple watermarks to be registered for a single host image without causing any damage to other hidden watermarks. Moreover, it is also possible for our scheme to cast a larger watermark into a smaller host image. Finally, experimental results will show the robustness of our scheme against several common attacks.



[34]A Modified Multi-Secret Sharing Visual Cryptography Scheme


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4724795&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



A modified threshold visual cryptography scheme (k, l, n)-VCS is proposed, which is used to analyze the relationship between the pixel expansion and the range of the participants¿ number. Based on (k, l, n)-VCS, a more precise definition of multi-secret sharing visual cryptography scheme is given, and a new method is presented. Experimental results demonstrate that both pixel expansion and relative difference of this method are better than those of the previous ones.



[35]Optimization of XOR visual cryptography scheme


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6181961&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



A method of constructing basic matrices for XOR visual cryptography is proposed in this paper, which designs one kind of threshold scheme by constructing recursion operator and integrating application of recursive idea. Experimental results show that the scheme constructed in this paper not only recovers the secret image sufficiently, but also resolves the problem of large pixel expansion upon XOR visual cryptography..



[36]novel visual cryptography scheme based on substitution cipher


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6707673&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



Security of information communication through open channels has been the prime concern during the last few decades. Apart from many conventional cryptographic schemes, visual cryptographic techniques have also been in use for data and information security. Visual Cryptography is basically a cryptographic method in which decryption is performed by human visual system. In this paper, we present a novel visual cryptography scheme based on a substitution cipher and random grid. The scheme uses two-fold encryption. In the first fold of encryption, Caeser cipher is used to encrypt the image row wise and then column wise using a key of the size equal to the greatest common devisor of the number of rows and columns in the secret image. Then a random matrix is generated and the transformed secret image is XORed with this random matrix to enhance the security. The scheme is shown to be secure and decryption is also lossless.



[37] A Co-cheating Prevention Visual Cryptography Scheme


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5514042&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



Participants colluding is an important issue of cheater detectable visual cryptography schemes. Based on a trusty third party, a co-cheating prevention visual cryptography scheme (CCPVCS) is proposed in this paper. Checking efficiency is improved by verifying the truth of several shares simultaneously, with designed special verification shares. Since the scheme idea is different from previous ones, the pixel expansion is small and the recovered secret image is good for viewing.



[38]Aspect Ratio Invariant Visual Cryptography Scheme with Optional Size Expansion


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6274652&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



Traditional visual cryptography scheme has a shortcoming of size expansion of the revealed image. Usually, the expansion ratio m is not a square integer, and results in the variant aspect ratio of the revealed image. The large size expansion is not convenient for storage and transmission. In this paper, an improved aspect ratio invariant visual cryptography scheme with optional size expansion is proposed. The details of the secret image have a priority to be preserved in the revealed image. Theoretically, the size expansion can be any value larger than 0. Compared with the literature schemes, our scheme can preserve the details well, especially for the thin lines in the secret image.



[39] Visual cryptography improvises the security of tongue as a biometric in banking system


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6075146&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



The importance of utilizing biometrics to establish personal authenticity and to detect imposters is growing in the present scenario of global security concern. Also the Development of a biometric system for personal identification, which fulfills the requirement for access control of secured areas and other applications like identity validation for social welfare, crime detection, ATM access, computer security, etc. is felt to be the need of the day. The human tongue promises to deliver a level of uniqueness to identification applications that other biometrics cannot match in context of that it is well protected in mouth and is difficult to forge. The tongue also presents both geometric shape information and physiological texture information which are potentially useful in identity verification applications. The 3D scanning of human tongue is an important tool to acquire accurate shape and texture information of tongue for recognition purposes. As we use biometrics mainly for security purpose so preserving the privacy of digital biometric data (e.g. tongue prints) stored in a central database has become of paramount importance, for this we are using visual cryptography while using it in biometric authentication system. This paper proposes the tongue biometric with visual cryptography technique to increase the efficiency of the proposed tongue biometric authentication system (banking system) using 3D database.



[40] The ringed shadow image technology of visual cryptography by applying diverse rotating angles to hide the secret sharing


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1297083&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



The visual cryptography, which differs from conventional visual cryptography that is restricted to four specific angles (0°, 90°, 180°, 270°) , can hide two sets of confidential data into the ringed shadow images and present them by applying diverse rotating angles. Due to the purpose of reaching arbitrary rotating angles, we have presented a new coding measure to demonstrate two sets of confidential data from the correspondent two ringed shadow images via rotating angle easily. This angle is located among the entire 360° circles arbitrarily. The measure raised in this thesis has not only overwritten the angle restriction of conventional visual cryptography, it also has made a significant modification on the method of displaying the two sets of data embedding in the encrypted imagines. The preceded study relevant to this topic is to present diverse confidential data by using various areas, which makes a serious degradation of resolution for partial encrypted images in regard of the area's location. Therefore, this thesis of study finds a way to present a clear and complete confidential data regardless the area is located at.



[41]Non-expansible Flip-flop Visual Cryptography with Perfect Security


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5337183&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



More and more researchers focus on the visual cryptography scheme that embeds more than one secret image. Most of them generate size-expanded transparencies for decoding only by human eyes. In this paper, a non-expansible flip-flop visual cryptography (FFVC) scheme is proposed. Firstly, stacking two generated transparencies, one of the secret images can be decoded. Another secret image can be decoded by flipping one of the transparencies and then stacking the transparencies again. Each generated transparency leaks out the secret images about neither pixel values nor the relation of some pixels to obtain perfect security.



[42Data Hiding in Non-Expansion Visual Cryptography Based on Edge Enhancement Multitoning


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4627065&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



This paper proposes a scheme to hide some extra confidential data in transparencies during secret image encryption in visual cryptography. The secret image is multitoned into several levels first. An extended non-expansion visual secret sharing model is employed, i.e. size of transparencies is equal to that of the secret image. Thus less time and space are needed for transparencies transmission and storage.



[43]An Innocuous Visual Cryptography Scheme


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4279173&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



An innocuous visual secret sharing scheme over natural images is presented in this paper. Secret sharing scheme allows a group of participants to share a secret (i.e., an image) among them. In case of(k, n) visual cryptography any group of k qualified participants among n (where k les n) can reconstruct the secret. This paper presents (n, n) visual cryptography scheme. This scheme does not apply dithering techniques to hide a secret image. Thus, it does not degrade quality of the secret image and in particular, this scheme is far from negative photo effect. Instead of dithering, this scheme spreads data by applying simple arithmetic operations. The rationale of arithmetic operations is presented.



[44] Digital watermarking and information hiding using wavelets, SLSB and Visual Cryptography method


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5705855&pageNumber%3D3%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



Watermarking technique is increasingly used in the protection of biometric data against accidental and intentional attacks. Biometric watermarking is a technique that creates a link between a human subject and the digital media by embedding biometric information into the digital object. Among the various biometrics, iris has gained more popularity in the authentication area. The reason behind their popularity is that they unique and hence can be used during personal identification. Another area is information hiding where secret messages are stored inside a message. In this paper, a novel hybrid method to hide an iris image and secret message into a cover image using Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT), SLSB (Selected Least Significant Bit) and Visual Cryptography (VC) is proposed. Results show that the recognition rate after dewatermarking is high and the proposed system can resist various attacks while maintaining the visual quality of the cover image and text message.



[45]Biometric based authentication using wavelets and Visual Cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5972423&pageNumber%3D4%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



Biometrics is the detailed measurements of the human body. Biometrics deals with automated methods of identifying a person or verifying the identity of a person based on physiological or behavioural characteristics. Protection of biometric data is gaining interest and digital watermarking techniques are used to protect the biometric data from either accidental or intentional attacks. Among the various biometrics, iris is very famous in the authentication area, as they are unique to each person and are mainly used for the establishment of instant personal identity. In this paper, a novel method using wavelet decomposition and Visual Cryptography is proposed to hide an iris image and it is embedded into a cover image. Results show that the proposed system can resist various attacks while maintaining the visual quality of the cover image.



[46] Cheating prevention in Visual Cryptography using steganographic scheme


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6781367&pageNumber%3D4%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



Visual Cryptography (VC) is a technique to encrypt a secret image into transparent shares such that stacking a sufficient number of shares reveals the secret image without any computation. Cheating is possible in the Visual Cryptographic Schemes (VCS) by dishonest or malicious participant called a cheater, may provide a Fake Share (FS) to cheat the other participants. To achieve cheating prevention in VC we have proposed a steganographic scheme to embed a secret message in each of the shares in random location during share generation phase called stego share. Before stacking receiver can extract hidden message from stego share for checking authentication of shares. In this method no verification share is required to prevent cheating in VC.



[47](2,3) RIVC Scheme in Visual Cryptography without Pixel Expansion


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6714174&pageNumber%3D4%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



Region Incrementing Visual Cryptography (RIVC) was first introduced by R Z Wang in 2009. (2, n) region incrementing visual cryptographic scheme gradually reconstructs the secrets in a single image with multiple security levels. But Wang's scheme suffers from color reversal and pixel expansion. Later, in 2012, k out of n region incrementing scheme and Efficient Construction for Region Incrementing Visual Cryptography using linear programming are also introduced. But all of these have a large pixel expansion problem and some of the methods suffer from colour reversal also. In this paper, efficient construction method of (2, 3) RIVCS is introduced without any pixel expansion and increased contrast. The following are the important features of the proposed system. a) It has no pixel expansion b) Increased contrast c) The color reversal problem is completely eliminated.



[48] Color image cryptography scheme based on visual cryptography


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6024584&pageNumber%3D4%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



A new cryptographic scheme proposed for securing color image based on visual cryptography scheme. A color image to be protected and a binary image used as key to encrypt and decrypt are taken as input. A secret color image which needs to be communicated is decomposed into three monochromatic images based on YCbCr color space. Then these monochromatic images are converted into binary image, and finally the obtained binary images are encrypted using binary key image, called as share-1 to obtain binary cipher images. To encrypt Exclusive OR operation is done between binary key image and three half-tones of secret color image separately. These binary images are combined to obtain share-2. In decryption the shares are decrypted, then the recovered binary images are inverse half toned and combined to get secret color image. This scheme is more efficient for communicating natural images across diffident channel.



[49]Extended visual cryptography for color images using coding tables


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6398090&pageNumber%3D4%26queryText%3DVisual+Cryptography



Visual cryptography (VC) schemes encrypt a secret image into two or more cover images, called shares. The secret image can be reconstructed by stacking the shares together, with no complex cryptographic calculations. This paper proposes a new VC scheme for color images. The shares generated are similar to the cover images, thereby reducing the suspicion of data encryption. The proposed scheme makes use of Jarvis error filter, a key table and specialized tables for coding. High visual quality is achieved as up to 50 percent of the secret image can be recovered.


[50]Multi-secret Visual Cryptography Based on Reversed Images


http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5514052&queryText%3DVisual-cryptography



By reversing secret images, a novel multi-secret visual cryptography scheme is presented in this paper. During the secret sharing process, the correlative matrices are designed to encode multiple images into two ring shares. Compared with the previous ones, the proposed scheme makes the number of secret images not restricted and has obviously improved the pixel expansion and the relative difference.




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