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Automation System

KaaShiv InfoTech, Number 1 Inplant Training Experts in Chennai.

Description:


An automated system is a system that is used to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. They include washing machines, calculators, dryers, and computers. They help to increase productivity and the quality of the goods produced. (Automation systems) Devices that automatically control systems such as temperature , lighting and water heating within a house. Automation crosses all functions within industry from installation, integration, and maintenance to design, procurement, and management. Automation even reaches into the marketing and sales functions of these industries.


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Algorithm:


  • Automated planning and scheduling
  • Algorithmic trading
  • Optimization Algorithms for Automated Trading
  • The Pros And Cons Of Automated Trading Systems
  • Genetic Algorithm
  • MRS Sorting Algorithm
  • Adaptation in Automated User-Interface Design
  • Immune Algorithm

  • 1)Automated system :


    Automatic Object Identifier and Image Recognizer (AOR)


    Abstract:


    The entire idea of our research project is to identify the patterns automatically with the help of classifier algorithms. The entire mission is to divide each of the input features into a number of intervals, so that the value of a feature can be specified approximately and it will be matched with the existing pattern to identify the object automatically. Pattern recognition on a system is about predicting the data which is unknown in nature of an observation, a discrete data quantity such as black or white information, one or zero natured data, real or fake informations. An observation of the information is a collection of manipulated numerical measurements such as an image, a vector of weather related data, an electrocardiogram related informations which may be utilized in medical field. In our system, we are trying to utilize classifier algorithm to classify individual elements in the images and afterwards the individual items will be tuned up and matched with the existing patterns and identify the numbers and recognise the number plate of the individuals.


    IEEE Title:


    Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR): A State-of-the-Art Review


    IEEE Abstract:


    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is the extraction of vehicle license plate information from an image or a sequence of images. The extracted information can be used with or without a database in many applications, such as electronic payment systems (toll payment, parking fee payment), and freeway and arterial monitoring systems for traffic surveillance. The ALPR uses either a color, black and white, or infrared camera to take images. The quality of the acquired images is a major factor in the success of the ALPR. ALPR as a reallife application has to quickly and successfully process license plates under different environmental conditions, such as indoors, outdoors, day or night time. It should also be generalized to process license plates from different nations, provinces, or states. These plates usually contain different colors, are written in different languages, and use different fonts; some plates may have a single color background and others have background images. The license plates can be partially occluded by dirt, lighting, and towing accessories on the car. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art techniques for ALPR. We categorize different ALPR techniques according to the features they used for each stage, and compare them in terms of pros, cons, recognition accuracy, and processing speed. Future forecasts of ALPR are given at the end.


    Implementation:


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    Screenshot:


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    Related URLs for reference:

    [1]Friendly home automation system using cell phone and J2ME with feedback instant voice messages:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=5069375


    This paper introduces a friendly system to control the home appliances remotely by the use of mobile cell phones; this system is well known as "Home Automation System" (HAS). The designed system covers the most important required factors in home automation system such as flexibility, security, easy to use, the ability to feedback information to the client immediately,... etc. The presented system uses the J2ME language to program the client mobile which sends information to the service mobile and this controls the operation of the appliances via a PIC microcontroller which connected to it and programmed in such a way that introduces the main characteristics of the system. Optocoupler and static power switch (TRAIC) are used as the interface devices between the PIC and the home appliances. The proposed HAS in this paper is implemented practically, tested and gave the correct and expected results.


    [2]A mobile-based home automation system:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=1656698


    The rapidly advancing mobile communication technology and the decrease in costs make it possible to incorporate mobile technology into home automation systems. We propose a mobile-based home automation system that consists of a mobile phone with Java capabilities, a cellular modem, and a home server. The home appliances are controlled by the home server, which operates according to the user commands received from the mobile phone via the cellular modem. In our proposed system the home server is built upon an SMS/GPRS (short message service/general packet radio service) mobile cell module and a microcontroller, allowing a user to control and monitor any variables related to the home by using any Java capable cell phone. This paper presents the design and implementation of AT modem driver, text based command processing software, and power failure resilient output for a microcontroller to facilitate in sending and receiving data via the cell module, together with the design of Java application to enable the cell phone to send commands and receive alerts through the cell module.


    [3]Home automation using GSM:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6024506


    In recent years, the home environment has seen a rapid introduction of network enabled digital technology. This technology offers new and exciting opportunities to increase the connectivity of devices within the home for the purpose of home automation. Moreover, with the rapid expansion of the Internet, there is the added potential for the remote control and monitoring of such network enabled devices. However, the adoption of home automation systems has been slow. This paper identifies the reasons for this slow adoption and evaluates the potential of Zig-Bee for addressing these problems through the design and implementation of flexible home automation architecture. Device control is a process that is done in the day to day life of mankind. Usually there are a number of devices associated with home and an efficient control of these systems is a tedious task. The rapidly advancing mobile communication technology and the decrease in costs make it possible to incorporate mobile technology into home automation systems.


    [4]Implementation of a home automation system through a central FPGA controller:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6196513


    Technology advancements have made possible the implementation of embedded systems within home appliances. This has added new capabilities and features, however, most of the time, the implementations are proprietary and networking is not always possible. Yet there is an increasing demand for smart homes, where appliances react automatically to changing environmental conditions and can be easily controlled through one common device. This paper presents a possible solution whereby the user controls devices by employing a central Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) controller to which the devices and sensors are interfaced. Control is communicated to the FPGA from a mobile phone through its Bluetooth interface. This results in a simple, cost effective, and flexible system, making it a good candidate for future smart home solutions..


    [5]Bluetooth based home automation system using cell phone:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6237775&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6237775


    Home automation is gaining popularity nowadays. A smart home automation system is based on ensuring security and making user life easier. It contains a large number of sensors which can control or monitor objects distributed in three-dimensional space. The sensors can be specialized in measuring temperature, humidity, pressure, light, noise, dust air, and so on. In this paper, a solution to transform a normal house in a smart house while reducing the energy consumption is proposed. This can be realized with the help of wireless sensor networks and of the LabVIEW™ graphical programming environment, which use the NI LabVIEW™ Statechart Module for collecting data from sensors..


    [6]Voice recognition based wireless home automation system :


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5937116&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5937116


    Since mobile devices have become more and more powerful and distributive, mobile computing has greatly changed our daily life. As one of the most popular mobile operating systems, Android provides the tools and API for Android developer to develop Android applications. The Android application development college challenge is a influential Android developer contest for college students in China. This contest has been held for two times since 2010. It encourages college students to design and implement their applications on the Android platform. In this way, it gives the students an opportunity to show their creativity and learn about the development of Android applications. The influence of the contest is keeping increasing, and students from more universities and regions take part in the contest. In this paper we introduce the organization of such a contest.


    [7]Smart home automation system using Wi-Fi low power devices:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6237775&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6237775


    Home automation is gaining popularity nowadays. A smart home automation system is based on ensuring security and making user life easier. It contains a large number of sensors which can control or monitor objects distributed in three-dimensional space. The sensors can be specialized in measuring temperature, humidity, pressure, light, noise, dust air, and so on. In this paper, a solution to transform a normal house in a smart house while reducing the energy consumption is proposed. This can be realized with the help of wireless sensor networks and of the LabVIEW™ graphical programming environment, which use the NI LabVIEW™ Statechart Module for collecting data from sensors.


    [8]Development of Remote-Controlled Home Automation System with Wireless Sensor Network:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4690743&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4690743


    A remote-controlled home automation system basing on the wireless sensor network, embedded system and GPRS was developed. This system allows the user to control the equipments in home, collect data about the appliance status and weather condition, and receive the alarm information of home intruder and fire through Chinese instant message of mobile service. The test result shows that the system can work according to deigned function. The advantages of this system are easy to set up, convince to use and interface friendly to Chinese people.


    [9]Sensor based home automation and security system :


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6229153


    The conventional design of home security systems typically monitors only the property and lacks physical control aspects of the house itself. Also, the term security is not well defined because there is a time delay between the alarm system going on and actual arrival of the security personnel. This paper discusses the development of a home security and monitoring system that works where the traditional security systems that are mainly concerned about curbing burglary and gathering evidence against trespassing fail. The paper presents the design and implementation details of this new home control and security system based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) The user here can interact directly with the system through a web-based interface over the Internet, while home appliances like air conditioners, lights, door locks and gates are remotely controlled through a user-friendly web page. An additional feature that enhances the security aspect of the system is its capability of monitoring entry points such as doors and windows so that in the event any breach, an alerting email message is sent to the home owner instantly.


    [10]Multi-advantage and Security Based Home Automation System :


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5703646&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5703646


    We are living in the era of minute by minute developments and new technologies, the demand of easy way of life is the talk of the day. engineering industries are focusing on the projects which advance and facilitate their customers with comfortable and secure living. This paper discusses the most advanced idea of Domotics, in which the comprehensive controlling and monitoring of all home appliances are done by simple instant message service. However, one of the most successful applications of image analysis and understanding, face recognition has recently received significant attention especially in the field of security. Moreover, globally available GSM is the cheapest wireless medium for any time communication with your deployed device. Above all, embedded designing on FPGA emerged a new way of technology which allows coupling of multi-dimensional features of system in to a single chip package.


    [11]Evaluation of wireless home automation technologies:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5936601&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5936601


    Introduction of Wireless Home Automation (WHA) has become a positive inspiration to the new home and renovation projects, as it increases the quality of life and comfort of the inhabitants, simultaneously facilitating energy conservation and environmental sustainability. Generally WHA networks comprise of wireless embedded sensors and actuators that intelligently interconnect with each other through a suitable wireless architecture. Many wireless technologies have been emerged recently targeting WHA, hence selecting the optimal technology is challenging. In this article, we present an evaluation of these emerging wireless technologies and discuss their suitability for smart home networks.


    [12]Wireless smart power saving system for home automation:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6470107&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6470107


    Mostly in home and office appliances like light and fan are manually controlled which leads to power wastage. They are left ON even if there is no usage and even when the appliances are in use their operation is not controlled by environmental conditions like daylight and temperature variation. By making a smart automated controlling system for appliances we can save the power by huge amount. In this paper we are providing a solution for preventing the wastage of power in a comfortable and cost effective way. Our system consists of an electronic door lock and power saving module. When the person enters the correct password in door lock the power saving module is switched on. The power saving module switches the appliances in the room based on the presence of the person. It also controls the power delivered to fan and light according to temperature of room and natural daylight intensity.


    [13]Supervision and Regulation of Home Automation Systems with Smartphones :



    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5703725&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5703725


    Home automation and building services systems are integrated in many homes and buildings to meet the needs of comfort, security and efficiency of the customers. On the other hand, mobile devices such as handheld devices and smart phones are providing location-independent access to the Internet and local networks. This paper describes the requirements to combine these two mediums to supervise home automation systems with smart phones. It presents the design and implementation of an iPhone application that allows the retrofitting of mobile devices into an existing KNX home automation system without the need of specific hardware or skilled technicians. An approach to use configuration files, which arise during the installation of KNX home automation systems, for the initial setup of the mobile application is discussed.

    [14]Wireless Home Security and Automation System Utilizing ZigBee based Multi-hop Communication:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5703725&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5703725


    Nowadays, smart home using wireless communication is replacing the wired system which was very messy and difficult to setup. However, the existing wireless smart home system only can cover up to a certain range of area that is limited by the range of wireless module being used. This paper introduces the conceptual understanding and strategy of ZigBee IEEE 802.15.4 standard to be deployed in smart home environment. ZigBee technology offers a multi-hop communication capability for data transfer. Multi-hop communication will provide unlimited range of communication for the system as long as there are intermediate nodes that will pass the data from one node to another until it reaches the destination. Prototype systems of home security and automation are built utilizing Zigbee based sensor network to present an insight for its practical implementation in smart home concept.


    [15]Definition of a Home Automation System for Energy Management and Efficiency :


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5692398&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5692398


    While there are no simple or immediate solutions for the warming up, the requirements in energy consumption are varying to achieve a sustainable evolution, mainly at the production of electricity . In Mexico the industrial sector registers the highest consumption, but at the residential sector - the second highest consumer of energy - more people might get to know the relevance of taking care of the planet. Now that different options might provide energy to Mexican homes, there is a tangible opportunity to develop residential energy management and efficiency models, as well as energy generation, transmission and consumption [mainly solar panels, societies of auto-generation, or buying power from the nearest generation-plant]. Home automation may provide a means to achieve this. A well-done planning is fundamental to create a clear concept of a solution; therefore, a reachable conceptual design of home automated solutions to energy conservation may emerge from this proposal.


    [16]Smart digital door lock for the home automation:

    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5396038&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5396038


    In this paper, we propose a smart digital door lock system for home automation. A digital door lock system is equipment that uses the digital information such as a secret code, semi-conductors, smart card, and finger prints as the method for authentication instead of the legacy key system. In our proposed system, a ZigBee module is embedded in digital door lock and the door lock acts as a central main controller of the overall home automation system. Technically, our proposed system is the network of sensor nodes and actuators with digital door lock as base station. A door lock system proposed here consists of RFID reader for user authentication, touch LCD, motor module for opening and closing of the door, sensor modules for detecting the condition inside the house, communication module, and control module for controlling other modules. Sensor nodes for environment sensing are deployed at appropriate places at home. Status of individual ZigBee module can be monitored and controlled by the centralized controller, digital door lock. As the door lock is the first and last thing people come across in entering and leaving the home respectively, the home automation function in digital door lock system enables user to conveniently control and monitor home environment and condition all at once before entering or leaving the house. Furthermore, it also allows users to remotely monitor the condition inside the house through Internet or any other public network. The biggest advantage of our proposed system over existing ones is that it can be easily installed when and where necessary without requirement of any infrastructures and proper planning.


    [17]ST2000 Home Automation System [for persons with disabilities] :


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=755766&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D755766


    The ST2000 Home Automation System enables a person with disabilities to control appliances with a phone, computer, or infrared remote controller. The ST2000 operates under two modes; normal and auto scan mode. In normal mode operation, the user will be able to input an appliance controlling command into their computer with the ST2000 modules controlling the appliance. In auto scan mode, appliance configuration is accomplished by the user by commanding the computer to scan the infrared code of an appliance. Once the proper code is found, the control module stops scanning, uploads and saves the correct code.


    [18] Design of Integrated Automation System of Energy-Fed Supply Substation:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5747756&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system


    In this paper, an integrated automation system of energy-fed supply substation based on computer technology and network communication technology is presented. Unlike the traditional secondary system of substation, this system adopts the embedded system to achieve the data acquisition, uses industrial Ethernet as transmission medium, utilizes the intelligent software to monitor automatically, measurement, control and micro-computerized protection for main equipment of substation. The practical operation demonstrates that the integrated automation system increases the degree of automation, increases the economic benefit, improves quality of power energy, and reduces operation costs.


    [19] Fault detection, isolation and restoration using a multiagent-based Distribution Automation System:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5138663&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system


    A multiagent-based Distribution Automation System (DAS) is developed for service restoration of distribution systems after a fault contingency. In this system, Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) agents, Main Transformer (MTR) agents, Feeder Circuit Breaker (FCB) agents, and Feeder Terminal Unit (FTU) agents of the Multiagent System (MAS) are used to derive the proper restoration plan after the faulted location is identified and isolated. To assure the restoration plan complies with operation regulation, heuristic rules based on standard operation procedures of Taipower's distribution system are included in the best first search of the MAS. For fault contingency during summer peak season when the capacity reserves of supporting feeders and main transformer are not enough to cover the fault restoration, load shedding scheme is derived for the MAS to restore service to as many key customers and loads as possible. A Taipower distribution system with 43 feeders is selected for computer simulation to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The results show that by applying the proposed multiagent-based DAS, service of distribution systems can be efficiently restored.


    [20] Survivability assessment for command automation system based on Bayesian networks :

    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5620327&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system



    To solve uncertainty and ambiguity of survivability assessment information of command automation system, this paper proposes one novel way of applying Bayesian networks to evaluate command automation system survivability. It establishes the Bayesian network model and gives the reasoning method based on Bays for command automation system survivability assessment. Finally the validity of the method is verified by an example.


    [21] Condition monitoring system for circuit breaker based on substation automation system:

    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4731160&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system



    Condition monitoring of circuit breaker is preference for cost saving in power utilities. However, extensive condition monitoring of circuit breaker is a hard task considering its tremendous number. Circuit breaker time, which is composed of opening time and arcing time, as well as its variation trends, can be used as an index to represent condition of mechanical and dielectric component of circuit breaker. Since the digital relay and digital fault recorder that can record dynamic process of circuit breaker operation, it is especially attractive to extract this data for circuit breaker information without hardware investment. In order to deduce circuit breaker time with transient data logged in substation automation system, a substation automation information management system is developed in this paper. The transient data follows transient data transformation standard (COMTRADE) is concentrated in controlling center. The information management system parses the composition and format of the logged data according COMTRADE, hence calculate and visualize the circuit breaker time and its variation trends.


    [22] Research on Integration Technology Between Distribution Automation System and Geographical Information System:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4918692&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system


    With the rapid development of the construction of the distribution automation system (DAS), how to integrate DAS with existing application system is a primary problem to solve, especially with geographical information system (GIS). This paper investigates various current integrated technologies between DAS and GIS and researches a system integration approach based on common information model (CIM) in detail. The results obtained from a practical project prove that the system integration technology base on CIM is effective, cost small and fast although it is not suitable for real-time application.


    [23] A Study on the Compound Communication Network over the High Voltage Power Line for Distribution Automation System:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4511602&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system


    Power company have been operated the automation system for relaying and supervisory controls by using public communication network. But these systems must have the strictest requirements of communication. For these reasons, there are a lot of difficulties to apply to the automation systemconsidering the cost, location environment, and other characteristics of power lines. But, recently, the existing power line can be used as communication media by using power line communication (PLC). PLC can be adopted as a main communication means, and other wired/wireless can be adopted as second means. In order to this, the high voltage PLC have to be used as a long distance communication network. In our study, in case of accidents, we suggest the intelligent Compound Communication System for optimal roundabout routes in communication network, and verified its performance and reliability in the real test field.


    [24] Electrical Distribution Automation System for Low Voltage (LV) System:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4154555&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system


    In this study, electrical distribution automation system (DAS) at low voltage (LV) to solve the problems experienced in the presence of the power supply cut off due to the line under repair or fault. Fault detection, fault identification, fault isolation and fault clearing tasks been done using DAS solution technique. The system implemented in this project operates and controls the equipment connected at the substation and distribution line/zone/pole remotely. The equipment is divided into two types, one type is installed at the substation and the other type is located to the distribution line pole/or distribution board of the consumers. All the equipment is linked by communication line connected between the substation and the controlled zone; all equipment is controlled and operated remotely to operate and control the distribution system and to communicate each other while sitting in the control room at the sub-station.


    [25] Design of the embedded remote monitor system for building automation system based on the VxWorks


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5406396&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system


    The embedded building automation system (BAS) is introduced in this paper, which includes BAS overall architecture, hardware and software structure. The BAS based on Pc104 bus adopts Vx Works system which is powerful real-time operating system. AMD processor is used as the BAS main controller's CPU. Meanwhile the whole information flow of the BAS is also discussed in this article. Data process and algorithm are presented in detail. Finally, the field experiments which include autonomous control mission are conducted to demonstrate the reliability and feasibility of the embedded BAS.


    [26] The Mariner-Mars Data Automation System:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4501997&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system


    This paper describes the Data Automation System used on board the Mariner-Mars probe. The system, which accounted for one-third of the total electronic components in the spacecraft, gathered information from six scientific experiments and a television camera and prepared the data for transmission to earth. The Mariner Mars Data Automation System is a high-density, low-power, solid-state electronic system. A description of the system operation, the data conversion techniques employed, and the circuitry used to implement the system are presented. A description of the unique hardware developed for this system is also given.


    [27] Customized SCADA system for low voltage distribution automation system:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5357001&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system


    This paper presents a customized SCADA at customer side distribution automation system (DAS) for operating and controlling low voltage (LV) down stream of 415/240 V by using the Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) distribution system. An embedded Ethernet controller is used as RTU to act as converter for HMI to interact with digital input and output modules. RTU is the master and digital input and output modules are the slaves. RTU will initiate the transaction with the digital input and output modules. Proprietary software is used to develop algorithm for the controller and to develop HMI for monitoring and controlling functions for the operator. The SCADA system software includes software modules such as graphic editor, database setup, alarm configuration, trending tools and communication setup. HMI monitoring system is correctly showing the fault point and generates the correct alarm messages for the operator to be acknowledged. The SCADA system developed provides automatic fault isolation, monitoring and controlling functions for the operators and data collection for future analysis.


    [28] Key technologies and test method of Remote Terminal in intelligent distribution automation system:



    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5736061&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system


    Around the distribution automation reliability, real-time, safety, operability and maintenance of the basic requirements, a detailed analysis of the five areas, such as structure and safety design, function, performance, electrical and magnetic properties and the main station communications etc, are putted forward to explain the key technologies of intelligent distribution automation terminal. The paper also bring forward a set of effective and practical testing techniques on the system and the targeted building blocks, mainly including the main fault simulation testing, signal avalanche testing, remote mutation testing, measure data change testing, electrical and magnetic properties testing and master site communications testing technologies. Through practical application Experience, it was showed that this test technology could finish the whole system test or the functional modules test of system and find the defects in each functional module to Enhance the construction, inspection, testing and maintenance levels of distribution automation system in the future.


    [29] On evaluation of alternative switching strategies for energy-efficient operation of modular factory automation systems:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6489596&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system


    In this paper, we propose a state-based, modular model for automation systems enabling the calculation and optimization of switching strategies for energy-efficient operation. This concept is based on the model of networked (priced) timed automata that we call energy system model. It comprises structural, temporal and energetic information of automation subsystems' behavior providing a basis for automated analysis and calculation of feasible, energy-optimal switching strategies for the complete automation system. The presented real-world automation system enables proof-of-concept and allows discussing the arising, domain-specific complexity of the temporal and energetic analysis. By means of the energy system model, we provide a basis for calculating energy-optimal operation of modular automation systems and support the comparison of alternative, energetic switching strategies of subsystems. For this purpose, a symbolic reachability analysis complemented by solving a constrained optimization problem is applied in this approach.


    [30] Java-based home automation system:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1309414&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system


    This paper presents the design and implementation of a Java-based automation system that can monitor and control home appliances via the World Wide Web. The design is based on a stand alone embedded system board integrated into a PC-based server at home. The home appliances are connected to the input/output ports of the embedded system board and their status are passed to the server. The monitoring and control software engine is based on the combination of JavaServer pages, JavaBeans, and interactive C. The home appliances can be monitored and controlled locally via the embedded system board, or remotely through a Web browser from anywhere in the world provided that an Internet access is available. The system is scalable and allows multi-vendor appliances to be added with no major changes to its core. Password protection is used to block unauthorized users from accessing the appliances at home. If the Internet connection is down or the server is not up, the embedded system board still can control and operate the appliances locally.


    [31] A component-based distributed control system for assembly automation:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1417298&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3Dautomation+system


    This paper describes the implementation of a novel distributed network-based industrial control systemfor an assembly automation system. The control system is composed of autonomous, intelligent components which have the capability of participating in the automation control without the need for a master controller. It is envisaged that assembly automation system that adopt this control approach can lead to greater agility, reusability and reduction in development cost.


    [32] Research on power dispatching automation system based on cloud computing:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6303206&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    This paper presents the Deployment Method of power dispatching automation system based on cloud computing, and analyzes the necessity and feasibility of cloud computing technology in key electrical applications especially power dispatching. By means of cloud computing technology, the reliability of IT infrastructures can be significantly improved; the technique on power dispatching can be easily standardized; and the advanced functions can be rapidly delivered. It also shortens the cycle of deploying new power system automation facilities and reduces administrative costs. Furthermore, this new-type system can solve the contradiction between hierarchical management and “integrated construction” in energy sector..


    [33] Integrating ZigBee lighting control into existing building automation systems:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6755824&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    Intelligent building automation systems require a large number of sensors to increase spatial resolution in order to achieve fine-grained sensing and control. However, traditional building automation systems are wired networks that require a tremendous cabling cost. In addition, cables themselves are unwelcome in many living environments. ZigBee has become an emerging wireless networking technology in recent years, which meets easy installation and flexible deployment requirements. Also, ZigBee technology satisfies the market's need for a cost-effective, standards based wireless network that provides a low power consumption, reliability and security. Therefore, ZigBee technology is very suitable for the networking of a building automation system. The goal of this paper was to develop a robust ZigBee wireless sensor network for building lighting control and to integrate the network into an existing building automation system. A Modbus-ZigBee gateway was developed to integrate these two different protocol systems. We tested our system in our test bed to verify the correctness of the gateway function and the network communication performance. The test results showed that ZigBee technology is feasible for use in building automation systems.


    [34] Communication System for Distribution Automation Using EPON:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5363237&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    In electrical power industry, the distribution network is an important part of the total electrical supply system as it provides the final link between the bulk transmission system and the customers. And a reliable communication network constitutes the core of the distribution automation system (DAS). Although a number of communication technologies have been applied to meet the utility's operational and planning purposes, there is no one-communication technology that is right for every situation. This paper proposes a novel communication method for distribution automation using Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPON). Based on centralized control scheme, a three-layer communication structure for DA is designed, which provides a good communication alternative for the DAS..


    [35] Progressive automation system for semiconductor manufacturing:

    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=524374&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAutomation+system



    A new semiconductor manufacturing line was set up and subsequently expanded to meet growing demand. The high yields and short turn-around time necessitated by the most recent technology requires current process equipment to operate at the limit of its capacity. Current factory automation systems must continually evolve to meet these new requirements. The semiconductor manufacturing line consists of several bays, such as those for photolithography and ion implantation. Hitachi has developed a progressive, flexible automation system that can be applied to manufacturing at the bay level. This system has two aims: to reduce operators' working hours by fully automating fabrication and semi-automating the inspection of wafers and equipment, and to increase working intervals between required equipment maintenance. The automation system is realized using in-situ monitoring.


    [36] Adaptive autonomy: Smart cooperative cybernetic systems for more humane automation solutions


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4413874&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    Smart cooperation of human and computer agents should be harmonized by adapting the automationlevel of the cybernetic systems to the changing environmental and peripheral situations. This paper presents an adaptive autonomy methodology that is based on an extension of a well-known human-automation interaction model, as well as the expert judgment technique and the performance shaping factors concept. The method is implemented to a power distribution automation system, and the results are discussed through a scenario-based approach. Then, the performance of the proposed methodology and the effectiveness of adaptive autonomy are shown by the wide span of the changes in the resulting automation levels. The trends of the automation levels are investigated versus the criticality of the situations and the automation stages. The application-oriented matters are also discussed to stress on the context-based nature of the human-centered automation models.


    [37] Advanced distribution automation system for control of PV inverters to enhance PV penetration:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6512406&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    The PV penetration level of a distribution system is often limited by the violation of voltage variation introduced by large intermittent power generation. This study investigates the control of PV inverters. To achieve better control of PV inverters, the Advanced Distribution Automation System is proposed in this paper to monitor the system voltage variation due to large ramping rate of real power injection by PVsystems. The ADAS system is also considered to support the fault detection, isolation and service restoration (FDIR) for enhancement of system reliability. In reactive power compensation for systemvoltage control during peak solar irradiation in order to increase the PV installation capacity of a distribution feeder without causing voltage violation problem.


    [38] Remote Control of Automation Systems for DES Courses:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4376291&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    The objective of technical courses is the transfer of knowledge and know-how to students. In the case of discrete event system courses, it is important for a learner to locally or remotely control real systems(or plants) that are composed of many sensors and actuators. The use of these devices poses several problems. First, it is difficult to adapt them to the student's level (from beginner to expert). Second, these systems are generally designed with industrial components. An error on the control-command design can involve safety problems and breakdowns. In this paper, the authors propose an original solution to solve these two problems. To guarantee the safety of the operators and the equipment, an approach using a validation filter is proposed. It is based on the definition of logical constraints, which should in no case be violated. To adapt the difficulty level, it is proposed to modify the level of automation. For that, the functional dimension of the automation system is modified to adapt the student's level of autonomy. The level of automation is defined by the teacher by means of a functional analysis of the system. To validate the approach, it is applied to an original project with ten-year-old children on a packaging system. The aim of the project is to enable ldquo young novice control engineersrdquo to perform their first programmable logic controller program to control the whole system.


    [39] Workflow and decision support for the design of distributed automation systems:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6300859&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    Distribution of automation functions onto several controllers has become a widely applied answer to the demands of huge and complex automated systems. Distributed networked automation systems offer advantages regarding various nonfunctional requirements, such as flexibility, availability and maintainability. On the other hand, they impose additional challenges, e.g. for fulfilling the real-time requirements. Control engineers face difficulties in coping with all non-functional requirements when designing distributed networked automation systems, as there are trade-offs between them. A complete and detailed model of the automation system, including all computation and network effects, is usually not available. Therefore, control engineers have a demand for support when making design decisions for distributed networked automation systems. In this contribution, the authors propose an engineering workflow which allows dealing with the design decisions and the non-functional requirements in an appropriate order, and underpins the need for additional support regarding design alternatives.


    [40] Plant wide integrated automation system for municipal wastewater treatment plant:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1527139&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    In general, it is difficult to realize the optimal operation of waste water treatment plant because of its complex nature (e.g., highly nonlinear, seriously coupled, higher order, time-varying and frequent variation of operating condition). An integrated automation system consisting of two layers: process manage system (PMS) and process control system (PCS), is developed to overcome the problem of high production costs in wastewater treatment plants in China because of low automation level. The structure, function and control strategy of the system are discussed. The system proposed in this paper has been successfully applied to the wastewater treatment plant in the southern suburb of Shenyang, realizing the optimal control of overall production index including wastewater treatment yield, treated wastewater quality and production cost. It has been found to provide great benefits for both economy and society.


    [41] Customized fault management system for low distribution automation system:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4762733&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    This paper presents the development of a fault management system for distribution automation system(DAS) for operating and controlling low voltage (LV) down stream of 415/240V. The fault management system is referred as the fault detection, fault location, fault isolation, supply restoration and manual control. The system is equipped with automated equipment to detect earth fault and over current conditions. An embedded Ethernet controller is used as remote terminal unit (RTU) to act as converter for human machine interface (HMI) and to interact with the digital input and output modules. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is integrated with RTU for automatic operating and controlling the distribution system. The laboratory results are compared with the simulation results to make the final conclusion of the algorithm function properly.


    [42] Real-Time Adaptive Automation System Based on Identification of Operator Functional State in Simulated Process Control Operations:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5345873&pageNumber%3D5%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    This paper proposes a new framework for the online monitoring and adaptive control of automation in complex and safety-critical human-machine systems using psychophysiological markers relating to humans under mental stress. The starting point of this framework relates to the assessment of the so-called operator functional state using psychophysiological measures. An adaptive fuzzy model linking heart-rate variability and task load index with the subjects' optimal performance has been elicited and validated offline via a series of experiments involving process control tasks simulated on an automation-enhanced Cabin Air Management System. The elicited model has been used as the basis for an online control system via the predictions of the system performance indicators corresponding to the operator stressful state. These indicators have been used by a fuzzy decision maker to modify the level ofautomation under which the system may operate. A real-time architecture has been developed as a platform for this approach. It has been validated in a series of human volunteer studies with promising improvement in performance.


    [43] Thermal analysis automation system for semiconductor package:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4525028&pageNumber%3D6%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    The technology of thermal analysis is very important in development of a new generation of IC package design, which aims to obtain the temperature distribution and thermal resistance of package. Most IC design engineers and package engineers have many difficulties in performing thermal analysis because they are familiar with the product structure but poor in thermal-physical modeling and FEA skills. To assist IC design engineers and package engineers to perform thermal analysis efficiently and accurately, a fully automation system (WBExcel) that has the ability to complete the whole package thermal analysis automatically has been developed based on ANSYSreg Workbench and Excel. The WBExcel consist of four modules: a Package Model Information Library, an executable Wizard System, a Package Material Library and an Environment Library. The general methodology of developing thisautomation system is introduced. The application on PCB level analysis and component level analysis is presented and indicates the reliability and efficiency of WBExce.


    [44] Leading automation instructor systems:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6618707&pageNumber%3D6%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    This paper suggests and develops a technique for a system, which automates instructors' scheduling of timetables to enable them to save time and effort by minimizing errors and costs. Automating repetitive manual procedures provides value to instituting timetable processes by providing reliable tables that can be free from mistakes. The growth of automation systems has been significantly increasing for organizations and their customers. As a matter of consequence, the popularity of automation systems is ongoing, and these systems play a critical role as their compromise has a technical impact and the need for them continues to increase. The complexity of setting automation systems continues to grow as the system architecture and applications must fulfill various requirements of ever demanding project scenarios. The automation system refers to the use of machines, devices, control systems and information technologies to increase and optimize productivity in the production of a system and the delivery of services. The correct incentive for applying automations raising productivity and quality.


    [45] Modeling distribution automation system components using IEC 61850:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5275841&pageNumber%3D6%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    IEC 61850 was proposed as a standard protocol for communications within the substation. In its current edition, the standard does not cover communications outside the substation, either with the control center or with other substations, for instance for remote protection. However, during the recent years, there has been a general belief that some features of the standard can be efficiently utilized for applications outside the substation as well. With the advent of new monitoring and control technologies the idea of power system automation at the distribution system and feeder level is crossing new boundaries. In such applications, accessing the accurate data is a necessity. With its future-proof object oriented structure, IEC 61850 can provide comprehensive and accurate information models for various components of distribution automation systems. This paper provides some examples on how the standard can be employed for this purpose, and what measures need to be taken to enable it to efficiently respond to some of the emerging technologies in distribution automation systems.


    [46] Importance of distribution automation system for Indian power utility:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5275250&pageNumber%3D6%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    After restructuring & reformation of Power Utility Sector in India through enactment of electricity Act 2003, the Power Distribution Utilities are facing tremendous challenges to comply regulatory norms as the distribution networks of Indian Power Utility have grown more than double in size and complexity in the last 10-15 years. It has resulted in increase in volume of workload and the inefficiency in whole distribution system. Continuance with conventional manual systems is going to prove a luxury in terms of cost apart from resulting in consumer dissatisfaction at the quality of service rendered & less control on Aggregated Technical & Commercial (AT&C) Loss. Enactment electricity Act 2003 has been pressurizing the power distribution utility to plan a clear road map towards achieving Distribution Automation without further delay. They need tod start implementation forthwith to meet the objective and begin the dasia Distribution Automationrdquo starting with urban areas and rolling it out gradually to rural areas. The automation system can be designed using available technology in computer systems, control systems and metering systems and dovetailing the same into the existing power systems. All the tools required such as Computers, Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), breakers, Switched Capacitor Banks, OLTC (On Load Tap Changer) Transformers, Auto Recourses, Sectionalizes, AMR (Automated Meter Reading) Systems and Communication Systems are available. An integrated Distribution Automation system enables Indian power utilities to have real time control over the costly energy sold. Improved efficiency results in lower costs & energy loss, better reliability in power supply, planned control actions, optimum power factor, and reduction in losses. It enables online or offline energy audit with or without AMR system which is now receiving the focused attention of all power utilities in India.


    [47] Research of feeder automation system based on multi-agent:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4582573&pageNumber%3D6%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    Feeder automation system based on multi-agent is proposed in this paper after analyzing the shortage of current distribution feeder automation system. Single agent can achieve feeder monitoring and local protection alone. When they cooperate, they can locate the fault line section rapidly and accurately, isolate the fault line section and restore power to unfaulted line sections intelligently. Strategy about fault processing of feeder automation system based on multi-agent is analyzed through experiments done in laboratory. It is proved that feeder automation based on multi-agent is more effective.


    [48] Design and implementation of a multimedia document automation system


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=669339&pageNumber%3D6%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    An electronic document automation system serves the purpose of processing documents over networks in a paperless manner. Obviously, such a system is significantly beneficial to our working efficiency. We design and implement a multimedia document automation system. We make use of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) to construct the multimedia document formats. We also design a Web based document management system and a workflow control scheme to facilitate query and management processes. We implemented the proposed system on the Windows NT platform in the Multimedia Information Networking (MINE) Laboratory at Tanking University.


    [49] Development of customized distribution automation system (DAS) for secure fault isolation in low voltage distribution system:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4595984&pageNumber%3D6%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    This paper presents the development of customized distribution automation system (DAS) for secure fault isolation at the low voltage (LV) down stream, 415/240 V by using the Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) distribution system. It is the first DAS research work done on customer side substation for operating and controlling between the consumer side system and the substation in an automated manner. Most of the work is focused on developing very secure fault isolation whereby the fault is detected, identified, isolated and remedied in few seconds. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) techniques has been utilized to build Human Machine Interface (HMI) that provides a graphical operator interface functions to monitor and control the system. Microprocessor based Remote Monitoring Devices have been used for customized software to be downloaded to the hardware. Power Line Carrier (PLC) has been used as communication media between the consumer and the substation. As result, complete DAS fault isolation system has been developed for cost reduction, maintenance time saving and less human intervention during faults.


    [50] Application of the information from Hydropower Dispatch Automation System in the forewarning and control of the power system:


    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6508668&pageNumber%3D6%26queryText%3DAutomation+system


    Hydropower Dispatching Automation System (HDAS) has played a significant role in the online monitoring, hydropower dispatching and accidents precaution. This paper proposed a method for the advanced application of HDAS. Emphasis is placed on the algorithms for accident precaution and assistant decision-making, taking advantage of the information provided by HDAS and D5000. The algorithms proposed in this paper are also applied to develop a dispatch software package, which is employed in the dispatching automation system in Sichuan Power Grid. An example of the online application is used to verify the effectiveness of the methods .


    More About Android Application


    Automation or automatic control, is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated.The biggest benefit of automation is that it saves labor, however, it is also used to save energy and materials and to improve quality, accuracy and precision. The term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic (coming from automaton), was not widely used before 1947, when General Motors established the automation department. It was during this time that industry was rapidly adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s. Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, electronic and computers, usually in combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined techniques. Two common types of automation are feedback control, which is usually continuous and involves taking measurements using a sensor and making calculated adjustments to keep the measured variable within a set range, and sequence control, in which a programmed sequence of discrete operations is performed, often based on system logic. Cruise control is an example of the former while an elevator or an automated teller machine (ATM) is an example of the latter. The theoretical basis of feedback control is control theory, which also covers servomechanisms, which are often part of an automated system. Feedback control is called "closed loop" while non-feedback control is called "open loop." Feedback control is accomplished with a controller. To function properly, a controller must provide correction in a manner that maintains stability. Maintaining stability is a principal objective of control theory. As an example of feedback control, consider a steam coil air heater in which a temperature sensor measures the temperature of the heated air, which is the measured variable. This signal is constantly "fed back" to the controller, which compares it to the desired setting (set point). The controller calculates the difference (error), then calculates a correction and sends the correction signal to adjust the air pressure to a diaphragm that moves a positioner on the steam valve, opening or closing it by the calculated amount. All the elements constituting the measurement and control of a single variable are called a control loop. The complexities of this are that the quantities involved are all of different physical types; the temperature sensor signal may be electrical or pressure from an enclosed fluid, the controller may employ pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical or electronic techniques to sense the error and send a signal to adjust the air pressure that moves the valve. The first controllers used analog methods to perform their calculations. Analog methods were also used in solving differential equations of control theory. The electronic analog computer was developed to solve control type problems and electronic analog controllers were also developed.[3] Analog computers were displaced by digital computers when they became widely available. Common applications of feedback control are control of temperature, pressure, flow, and speed.Sequential control may be either to a fixed sequence or to a logical one that will perform different actions depending on various system states. An example of an adjustable but otherwise fixed sequence is a timer on a lawn sprinkler. An elevator is an example that uses logic based on the system states to perform certain actions in response to operator input A development of sequential control was relay logic, by which electrical relays engage electrical contacts which either start or interrupt power to a device. Relays were first used in telegraph networks before being developed for controlling other devices, such as when starting and stopping industrial-sized electric motors or opening and closing solenoid valves. Using relays for control purposes allowed event-driven control, where actions could be triggered out of sequence, in response to external events. These were more flexible in their response than the rigid single-sequence cam timers. More complicated examples involved maintaining safe sequences for devices such as swing bridge controls, where a lock bolt needed to be disengaged before the bridge could be moved, and the lock bolt could not be released until the safety gates had already been closed.The total number of relays, cam timers and drum sequencers can number into the hundreds or even thousands in some factories. Early programming techniques and languages were needed to make such systems manageable, one of the first being ladder logic, where diagrams of the interconnected relays resembled the rungs of a ladder. Special computers called programmable logic controllers were later designed to replace these collections of hardware with a single, more easily re-programmed unit. In a typical hard wired motor start and stop circuit (called a control circuit) a motor is started by pushing a "Start" or "Run" button that activates a pair of electrical relays. The "lock-in" relay locks in contacts that keep the control circuit energized when the push button is released. (The start button is a normally open contact and the stop button is normally closed contact.) Another relay energizes a switch that powers the device that throws the motor starter switch (three sets of contacts for three phase industrial power) in the main power circuit. (Note: Large motors use high voltage and experience high in-rush current, making speed important in making and breaking contact. This can be dangerous for personnel and property with manual switches.) All contacts are held engaged by their respective electromagnets until a "stop" or "off" button is pressed, which de-energizes the lock in relay. See diagram: Motor Starters Hand-Off-Auto With Start-Stop (Note: The above description is the "Auto" position case in this diagram)Commonly interlocks are added to a control circuit. Suppose that the motor in the example is powering machinery that has a critical need for lubrication. In this case an interlock could be added to insure that the oil pump is running before the motor starts. Timers, limit switches and electric eyes are other common elements in control circuits.Solenoid valves are widely used on compressed air or hydraulic fluid for powering actuators on mechanical components. While motors are used to supply continuous rotary motion, actuators are typically a better choice for intermittently creating a limited range of movement for a mechanical component, such as moving various mechanical arms, opening or closing valves, raising heavy press rolls, applying pressure to presses.



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