Automated Crawler towards Vulnerability Scan Report Generator

KaaShiv InfoTech, Number 1 Inplant Training Experts in Chennai.

IEEE Title

A Network Based Vulnerability Scanner for Detecting SQLI Attacks in Web Applications

IEEE Abstract

Today is the world of information era, where information is available on just our single click. Web applications are playing a magnificent role in this, every organizations are mapping their business from a room to the world with the help of these Web Apps. Web applications generally consist of a three tier architecture where database is in the third pole, which is the most valuable assets in any organization, as the adaptation of web applications are increases day by day, various attacks are possible against this. SQL injection is an attack in which an attacker directly compromises the database, that's why this is a most threatening attack. Various Vulnerability scanners has been proposed to deal with this, but none of them are able to detect SQLI completely, the existing tools have the accuracy ratio very less as well as they produce a high rate of false positive, apart from that all these tools take much time to scan. So here we are presenting a network based vulnerability scanner approach which provides a better coverage and with no false positive within a short span of time.

Automated Crawler towards Vulnerability Scan Report Generator


A vulnerability scanner is a minor computer program designed to assess/analyze the computers, computer systems, networks or applications for prone to weaknesses.There are many number of vulnerability scanners available in the market, distinguished from another by a focus on particular targets.The goal of running/executing a vulnerability scanner is used to identify devices on your network that are open to known vulnerabilities.To determine what types of software is present, along with additional information about the possible issues in the computers—such as the type and version of the OS. This information can be used to analyze for known or recently discovered vulnerabilities that can be exploited to gain access to secure networks and computers.One major issue with vulnerability scanners is their performance impact on the devices they are scanning. On the one hand you want the scan to be able to be performed in the background without affecting the application. On the other hand, you want to be sure that the application scan should be thorough.In our project, we are going to use the concept of crawling the entire application and identify the possible attacks happening on the system.


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Related URL’s for reference

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[2]Security Model Based on Network Business Security

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[20]Security situation analysis and prediction system for large-scale network SSAP

SSAP is developed for national backbone networks, large network operators, large enterprises and other large-scale networks. The system collects, interprets and displays the security factors which cause changes of network situation, and predicts the future development trend of these security factors. This paper describes its architecture and key technologies: security data integration technology for distributed heterogeneous network, association analysis technology oriented the major network securityevents, real-time analysis technology based on the data flow and multi-dimensional analysis for networksecurity data, network security situation prediction technology, and so on. The performance tests show that SSAP has high real-time and accuracy in security situation analysis and trend prediction. The system meets the demands of analysis and prediction for large-scale network security situation.

[21]A network security evaluation method based on fuzzy and RST

The security evaluation for an information network system is an important management tool to insure its normal operation. We must realize the comprehensive network security risks and take effective securitymeasures. A network evaluation model and the corresponding fuzzy algorithm are presented and adapt the hierarchical method to characterize the security risk situation. The model combined with the importance of the security measure, environment and the key nodes. The evaluation method based on RST is used to evaluate the key nodes and the fuzzy mathematics is used to analyze the wholenetwork security situation. Compared with others, the method can automatically create a rule-basedsecurity evaluation model to evaluate the security threat from the individual security elements and the combination of security elements, and then evaluation the network situation. It is shown by experimental results that this system provides a valuable model and algorithms to help to find the security rules, adjust the security measure, improve the security performance and design the appropriate security risk evaluation and management tools.

[22] Intelligence security home network

The term security network intelligence is widely used in the field of communication security network. A number of new and potentially concepts and products based on the concept of security networkintelligence have been introduced, including smart flows, intelligent routing, and intelligent Web switching. Many intelligent systems focus on a specific security service, function, or device, and do not provide true end-to-end service network intelligence. True security network intelligence requires more than a set of disconnected elements, it requires an interconnecting and functionally coupled architecture that enables the various functional levels to interact and communicate with each other. We propose a uniform work for understanding end-to-end communication security network intelligence (CSNI), which is defined as the ability of a network to act appropriately in a changing environment. We consider an appropriate action to be one that increases the optimal and efficient use of network resources in delivering services, and we define success as the achievement of behaviour sub-goals that support the service provider's ultimate goals, which are defined external to the network system. The work presented incorporates the functional elements of intelligence into computational modules and interconnects the modules into networks and hierarchies that have spatial, logical, and temporal properties. Based on the work proposed, we describe an end-to-end multiservice network application spanning the networksecurity management layer, optical layer, switching/routing layer, security services layer, and other layers.

[23]Quantification of Network Security Situational Awareness Based on Evolutionary Neural Network

The proposal of network security situational awareness (NSSA) research means a breakthrough and an innovation to the traditional network security technologies, and it has become a new hot research topic in network security field. Combined with evolutionary strategy and neural network, a quantitative method of network security situational awareness is proposed in this paper. Evolutionary strategy is used to optimize the parameters of neural network, and then the evolutionary neural network model is established to extract the network security situational factors, so the quantification of network securitysituation is achieved. Finally simulated experiment is done to validate that the evolutionary neuralnetwork model can extract situational factors and the model has better generalization ability, which supports the network security technical technologies greatly.

[24] Dynamic awareness of network security situation based on stochastic game theory

Stochastic game theory is proposed to apply in the research on network security situational awareness (NSSA), which is a research focus in network security field at present. A novel dynamic awareness method of network security situation (NSS) based on analyses of network service states is proposed in this paper. Realizing situation awareness is a dynamic process, and the diverse states of networkservices are just direct mirrors of the whole network security situation. Network security situation reflects what is happening in the network, including both the offense and defense behaviors in it. Stochastic game model of network security system is constructed in this paper, and network securitysituation is quantified by the game mathematical formulation, costs or rewards of attackers and defenders are established, and finally non-linear programming is used to compute the Nash equilibrium points, at which point both of the two sides get a balance between their benefits. Network securitysituation can then be dynamically achieved by visualizing the diverse metrics information of networkservices at Nash equilibrium during the operating of network system.

[25] The problems in campus network information security and its solutions

In the Age of Information, network education pays more attention to the application of IT technology and the training of talents, which makes learning more of customization and of opening up. In order to better enable learners to go beyond the limitations of space and time to acquire knowledge; in order to provide excellent learning environment for greater freedom and greater choice of learning activities space, the project to building campus network has become the basis of all university building work. It is directly related to the quality and level of their teaching and scientific research work. The campus network has a number of tasks such as teaching, research, management and communication with the outside. Therefore, the issue of network security has become a priority to campus network management. Obviously, the current Internet is convenient but at the same time it is unsafe. As part of the Internet and the unique attributes of campus network, it is more easily attacked when enjoying the service provided by the Internet. This paper starts from the current security status of the campus network, analyzing threatens to campus network security and strategies to maintenance of network security, so as to establish a suitable campus network security system, and introduce some current popular campusnetwork information security solutions.

[26]A View about Cloud Data Security from Data Life Cycle

Data security has become one of core problems of cloud computing. Many security solutions have been proposed, however, most of them only focus one stage of data life cycle, such as storage stage, which is not enough to solve cloud data security problem as threats exist in whole data life cycle. In this paper, we argue that the cloud data security problem should be solved form data life cycle. After detail analysis of data life cycle model and data security threats, a suggested design process of data security solution is given. The proposed idea is simple but important to create the complete security solution to clouddata security.

[27] The Design Research of Data Security Model Based on Public Cloud

Public cloud data security in cloud computing is due to the data stored in the cloud. It's in a low cost and high efficiency, also bring the data the possibility of abuse. Therefore, in this paper, researching the model respond to threats based on the analysis of threats to public cloud factors, and puts forward the user management, data security, data center hardware and software security and control transfer to strengthen the data security of the public cloud. And to find the balance between risk and business mission.

[28] Research on cloud computing data security model based on multi-dimension

Cloud computing is considered to be the next generation of information technology framework. It is the next generation computing platforms that can provide dynamic resource pools, virtualization and high availability. The new character brings a lot of new security challenges which have not been taken into account completely in the current cloud computing system. As a consequence, to build a cloud computing data security system is the basis to build cloud computing security system. In this article, the cloud computing technology architecture and the cloud computing data security features are the first to be studied and considered, then the cloud computing data security model is raised. At last, the realization of data security model has been researched. The model adopts a multi-dimension architecture of three - layers defense. First of all, user authentication is required to ensure that user datacannot be tampered. Users who pass the anthentication can get relative operation on the user data, such as addition, modification, deletion. If the unauthorized user use illegal means to deceive the authentication system, the file entered the system encrypt and privacy defense levels. In this layer, userdata is encrypted. If key has been got by the intruder. The user data cannot be got valid information even it is obtained through function of privacy protection. It is very important for commercial users of the cloud computing to protect their business secrets. The last is the file quick regeneration layer, user datacan get maximum regeneration even it is damaged through rapid regeneration algorithm in this layer. Each layer accomplishes its own job and combines with others to ensure data security in the cloud computing.

[29] Data-centric security: Integrating data privacy and data security

Classifying data according to its permissible use, appropriate handling, and business value is critical fordata privacy and security protection. This is essential for compliance with the constantly evolving regulatory landscape concerning protected data. Problems arise when users compromise data privacy and security by overlooking the critical need to manage data according to these requirements. This paper considers the creation and application of data classification systems for security and privacy purposes. It focuses primarily on classifying information in a meaningful way through the use of a partially automated methodology that normalizes and classifies structured data throughout an enterprise. We introduce the three pillars of the data-centric security model, which are based on thedata-centric security classification offering by IBM Global Business Services (GBS) and the IBM Research Division. In particular, we describe the data classification pillar of the data-centric securityarchitecture, which provides the framework and method for partially automated classification of data to meet the demands of compliance standards.

[30]Data security policy in the cloud computing

The user concerns more and more about data security since off-site storage of data on cloud computing. So, we put forward management ideas of user data classification and designed a cloud-based data security policy through user demand for data security protection. It ensures that internal datais not spread to the public cloud through strong authentication, data evaluation classified, sensitive information filtering, cloud computing security gateway strategy and management to protect such as thesecurity management, rules and regulations, safety education.

[31]A Survey of Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard

Usage of payment cards such as credit cards, debit cards, and prepaid cards, continues to grow.Security breaches related to payment cards have led to billion dollar losses annually. In order to offset this trend, major payment card networks have founded the Payment Card Industry (PCI) SecurityStandards Council (SSC), which has designed and released the PCI Data Security Standard (DSS). This standard guides service providers and merchants to implement stronger security infrastructures that reduce the risks of security breaches. This article mainly discusses the need for the PCI DSS and the data security requirements defined in the standard to address the ongoing security issues, especially those pertaining to payment card data handling. It also surveys various technical solutions, offered by a few security vendors, for merchant companies and organizations involved in payment card transaction processing to comply with the standard. The compliance of merchants or service providers to the PCI DSS are assessed by PCI Qualified Security Assessors (QSAs). This article thus discusses the requirements to become PCI QSAs. In addition, it introduces the PCI security scanning procedures that guide the scanning of security policies of a merchant or service provider and prepare relevant reports. We believe that this survey sheds light on potential technical research problems pertinent to the PCI DSS and its compliance.

[32] Data security in a ship detection and Identification System

The use and access of space-based and terrestrial assets for maritime surveillance has developed rapidly in the recent decades. These developments have implications for civil, commercial and military stakeholders and are used by both advanced and developing countries. There are many sensors and systems applicable to the maritime domain such as Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS), Automatic Identification System (AIS), airborne and space borne optical and radar imagery, ship and coastal radar, underwater acoustics and underwater electromagnetic. We are designing a ship detection and identification system (SDIS) that integrates the results of all of these methods to determine the position and identity of ships for the purpose of monitoring the marine traffic in particular area. The data required by SDIS is readily available from a variety of third-party data providers. By employing redundant datafrom different detection methods we aim to improve the ship detection and identification accuracy. We realize that data providers will transmit their data to clients in a secure manner in order to protect theirdata from unauthorized viewing or alteration. SDIS needs to function with the varying security methods of the different data providers. Although data security has the highest risks during transmission we have chosen to use a data-at-rest approach and encrypt the data streams within SDIS at all stages including transmission, storage and in-use. SDIS also has the challenge of ensuring users' adherence to the contractual data use restrictions as stipulated by the third-party data providers. This paper describes the data security aspects of the SDIS as determined in the initial design phases.

[33] A Modified Model for Private Data Security Facing E-commerce

In order to improve personal data security in the electronic commerce, and to avoid information exposing of personal privacy, personal data was used as the encrypted principle, applying homomorphism and random perturbation to strengthen personal data security. This paper analyze the usage of personal data in electronic commerce firstly, then discuss the P3P to realize security of personal data. This mechanism cannot guarantee that Web sites do act according to their policies once they have obtained user's personal data. In light of this, a new algorithm was used to acquire improvedsecurity. The proposed algorithm uses homomorphism as principle to preserve privacy. This method can make the important data to be appeared with secret content in the web service, and prevent personal data from being misused. The simulation results proved that the modified method can protect personal privacy effectively, and can carry on data mining to provide the characteristic service for the customer, and modified method has shorter response time.

[34]Data security in cloud computing

This article discusses cloud computing data security issues, including tile security of data transmission, storage, security and management of security. Focus on universal data management affect cloudsecurity analysis, and pointed out that a breakthrough in the development of this cloud computing, try to enumerate the corresponding strategies and long-term development direction. Final part is a summary and outlook about future development of cloud computing security issues.

[35]Enhanced data security model for cloud computing

Cloud Computing becomes the next generation architecture of IT Enterprise. In contrast to traditional solutions, Cloud computing moves the application software and databases to the large data centers, where the management of the data and services may not be fully trustworthy. This unique feature, however, raises many new security challenges which have not been well understood. In cloud computing, both data and software are fully not contained on the user's computer; Data Securityconcerns arising because both user data and program are residing in Provider Premises. Clouds typically have a single security architecture but have many customers with different demands. Every cloud provider solves this problem by encrypting the data by using encryption algorithms. This paper investigates the basic problem of cloud computing data security. We present the data security model of cloud computing based on the study of the cloud architecture. We improve data security model for cloud computing. We implement software to enhance work in a data security model for cloud computing. Finally apply this software in the Amazon EC2 Micro instance.

[36] Hybrid Multi-cloud Data Security (HMCDS) Model and Data Classification

Cloud computing is one of the most exciting paradigm shifts in distributed computing. Cloud computing is being widely used due to its readily available services at low cost. When the number of cloud users increase this may subsequently lead to data security and privacy threats. Data confidentiality and efficient data retrieval are major issues which block users to adopt cloud computing. The focus of this paper is data confidentiality and efficient data retrieval issues in cloud computing. The data classification and cloud model are proposed to overcome data confidentiality and efficient data retrieval issues. In this paper we propose a new cloud model, i.e., the Hybrid Multi-Cloud Data Security (HMCDS) model withdata classification. The model is based on multi-cloud, different clusters and data classification. Two levels of security are considered, i.e., model and data classification based levels.

[37] A Modified Query Algorithm for Private Data Security Facing E-commerce

In order to improve personal data security in the electronic commerce, and to avoid information exposing of personal privacy, personal data was used as the encrypted principle, applying homomorphism and random perturbation to strengthen personal data security. This paper analyzes the usage of personal data in electronic commerce firstly, and then some solved method was given in the database currently. A new query algorithm was used to acquire improved encrypted data. This method can make the important data to be appeared with secret content in the Web service, and prevent personal data from being misused. The simulation results proved that the modified method can protect personal privacy effectively, and modified method has shorter response time.

[38]Enabling data security with COTS solid-state flash disks

Securing confidential data in emergency situations is essential for mission-critical applications. The damage that can result if top-secret information falls into unauthorized or enemy hands can be devastating. Although sanitizing mechanical disks and magnetic tapes can irretrievably delete confidential data, the process is long and arduous, requiring special degaussers, stable power conditions through its duration and adequate time $all of which is often lacking in emergency conditions. The incident in which the US Navy surveillance plane (EP-3E ARIES II) was forced to land in China on April 1, 2001 serves as a chilling reminder of current-day needs for a media that can guarantee datasecurity in emergencies. Solid-state flash disks are being used as drop-in replacements for mechanical disks in military and aerospace mission-critical applications. Flash disk are rugged and operate under the harshest environmental extremes. Flash disk manufacturers have incorporated several features to enhance data security in emergencies. These include fast secure erase and sanitize that sanitize the disk in seconds with unstable power conditions, and security erase that operates with no power at all. This work reviews the levels established by security agencies such as $the US DoD, NSA, US Army, Navy and Air Force - for "erasing" sensitive data for various types of storage media, including tapes, magnetic mechanical disks, optical disks and semiconductor memories. It discusses current options for achieving the required data security levels in emergencies, the pros and cons of the most popular methods, and presents a selected case study within the military and aerospace.

[39] SWART: Secure Web Application Response Tool

Web applications are increasingly used to provide e-services such as online banking, online shopping, and social networking over the internet. With this advancement, the attacks over the web applicationshave also increased. According to Cenzic 2013 report 99% of web applications are vulnerable tested in 2012 [1]. The root causes behind these vulnerabilities are lack of security awareness, design flaws & implementation bugs. Writing secure code for web application is a complex task as developer emphasis more on implementation of business logic for web application rather than implementing it with secure logic. These vulnerabilities might be exploited by malicious users which can harm the database & reputation of an organization. In this paper we have proposed an Application Intrusion Detection System tool which can detect & prevent web application attacks at the time of occurrence. We have implemented proposed approach with ASP.NET web application and also perform Chi Square test to validate our assumptions. Once completed SWART has future potential to detect and prevent maximum attacks with less complexity.

[40]High Quality Web-Application Development on Java EE Platform

Quality of Web-applications plays major role in its success. And the high quality Web-application is really possible by following high quality Web engineering process. The use of strong Web-applicationarchitecture with strong development platform not only make Web-applications robust and of high quality but also give Web-application an ability to meet changing and demanding customer requirements in efficient manner. A Model View Controller (MVC) design pattern has remained fundamental architectural design pattern even after great evolution in architectures of user interactiveapplications. In this paper, we discuss the support for achieving quality attributes for the Web-application, the support for Web-application development process and the support for meeting demanding features of Web application on Java EE platform. This contribution will help a lot for small scale as well as large scale Web-application development and for moulding Web-application into a future's high quality finished product from inception phase itself.

[41] Decomposition and Abstraction of Web Applications for Web Service Extraction and Composition

There are large demands for re-engineering human-oriented Web application systems for use as machine-oriented Web application systems, which are called Web services. This paper describes a framework named H2W, which can be used for constructing Web service wrappers from existing, multi-paged Web applications. H2Ws contribution is mainly for service extraction, rather than for the widely studied problem of data extraction. For the framework, we propose a page-transition-based decomposition model and a page access abstraction model with context propagation. With the proposed decomposition and abstraction, developers can flexibly compose a Web service wrapper of their intent by describing a simple workflow program incorporating the advantages of previous work onWeb data extraction. We show three successful wrapper application examples with H2W for real worldWeb applications.

[42]Comparative Study on Applicability of WEBMO in Web Application Cost Estimation within Klang Valley in Malaysia

Parametric Web application cost estimation is referred to the usage of mathematical model to derive the estimated effort and duration of Web application development. Typically, majority of Web applicationdevelopers are applying expert judgment and estimation by analogy in Web application development. This paper is focusing on feasibility study of WEBMO (Web model), a parametric Web application cost estimation model, in Web application development within Klang Valley in Malaysia. WEBCOMO, a parametric Web application tool is developed based on WEBMOpsilas methodology to fulfill the objective of the study.

[43] Improving learnability and understandability of a Web application using an action-based technique

The emergence of the Internet era leads to the widely used of Web-based applications. Diverse demographic of users requires Web applications to have the features that enable different level of users to learn and understand their functionalities easily and instantly. Thus, a Web application that is learnable and understandable allows users to interact better and gain more advantages of using theWeb application. Users' interactions with a system often reflect users' knowledge and understanding of the system. By studying users' interactions, Web developers can provide guidance to users, which promote the learnability and understandability of a Web application. The aim of this paper is to improve usability in the aspects of learnability and understandability through user interface design of a Webapplication. This paper proposes an action-based technique to improve users' learnability and understandability by studying users' interactions while they are interacting with the user interface of aWeb application. Web developers can apply the proposed technique in designing a more usable Webapplication in the future.

[44]Evaluation of Web Applications According to Intelligence Parameters

Nowadays evaluation of software is important term in software engineering world. Engineers use conventional metrics to evaluate a software production which was defined in software engineering . Also defining a metric is depending on application of software. Web application is wellknown as software. Evaluation of Web application is possible by conventional metrics. As we know competition in developing of Web application is for producing intelligent product. We want to define a new metric as intelligence of a Web application in addition to available solutions. We also want to evaluate Webapplications according to this new metric. How much a Web application is intelligent? This is an important question and we want to answer the question. The most important points of this report are to define the intelligence of a Web application in the forms of intelligence levels and intelligence parameters.

[45]Taxonomy of Java Web Application Frameworks

This paper describes various Web application frameworks and related emerging technologies pertinent to the Java EE model from a technical perspective. A definition of "Web application framework" is specified, as this terminology has been widely used and implies drastically different meanings in different contexts. The value proposition of a Web application framework is presented to illustrate how a framework can improve the application development productivity and quality. The design philosophy ofWeb application frameworks is articulated. A comprehensive taxonomic scheme is defined to classify various software frameworks and Web application frameworks into appropriate categories. Among dozens of Web application frameworks available as commercial and open source solutions, the predominant products are investigated, followed by the selection guidelines and recommendations. A reference card is constructed to summarize the key aspects of Web application frameworks. Relevant technologies and future trends are also discussed.

[46] SI4WAC: A Semantic-Based Infrastructure for Web Application Cooperation

The open environment of Web is autonomous, heterogeneous and dynamic, and this problem causes the difficulties of sharing, interoperation and cooperation between Web applications. To solving this problem, a semantic-based architecture for Web application cooperation - SI4WAC is presented. Firstly, in order to provide a sharable vocabulary, extension-based and intension-based methods of ontologies combination are designed to interpret interfaces of Web applications. Then, this paper analyzes the process of state transition of Web application, and depicts the dynamic transition process with the state transition graph. Comparing with existing methods of integration and interoperation forWeb application, SI4WAC considers static and dynamic semantics synthetically, and gives two algorithms to bridge distributed ontologies. Meanwhile, with the formal semantic, ontology and process can be used to reason and model validation for Web application.

[47]CoOWA: a Component Oriented Web Application model

As applications based on the World Wide Web are increasing rapidly in terms of both scale and complexity, it has been well recognized that the World Wide Web has evolved from a hypermedia information medium into a new distributed application platform, and it is therefore proper and prospective to view Web applications as software. Developing and maintaining large and complex Webapplications demands a systematic process and an effective engineering methodology. A suitable model of Web application that can capture its features is crucial and fundamental to the establishment of such approaches. In this paper, based on our understanding of Web applications as software, we propose a component-oriented Web application (CoOWA) model in which a Web application is regarded as a collection of components, each having its own functionality and cooperating with others through certain interfaces. It is aimed at establishing a foundation for an engineering methodology for more effective Web application development and maintenance that can benefit from the notion of a component-oriented approach.

[48]Some Trends in Web Application Development

A Web application is an application that is invoked with a Web browser over the Internet. Ever since 1994 when the Internet became available to the public and especially in 1995 when the World WideWeb put a usable face on the Internet, the Internet has become a platform of choice for a large number of ever-more sophisticated and innovative Web applications. In just one decade, the Web has evolved from being a repository of pages used primarily for accessing static, mostly scientific, information to a powerful platform for application development and deployment. New Web technologies, languages, and methodologies make it possible to create dynamic applications that represent a new model of cooperation and collaboration among large numbers of users. Web application development has been quick to adopt software engineering techniques of component orientation and standard components. For example, search, syndication, and tagging have become standard components of a new generation of collaborative applications and processes. Future developments in Web applications will be driven by advances in browser technology, Web Internet infrastructure, protocol standards, software engineering methods, and application trends.

[49] An empirical study on performance evaluation of parallel architecture for web application services

Both server performance and web services are crucial components to make sure the web applicationrun smoothly. When one of web services fail to release resources from memory, the web applicationwill not respond. This research paper shows the evaluations on the web server-based performance's on parallel architectures. From empirical research, by using parallel technologies, server's performance becomes more reliable due to high load of web-based processing. This research also proposed a new deployment of network architecture for web application server, portal server and databases.

[50]Non-detrimental Web application security scanning

The World Wide Web has become a sophisticated platform capable of delivering a broad range ofapplications. However, its rapid growth has resulted in numerous security problems that current technologies cannot address. Researchers from both academic and private sector are devoting a considerable amount of resources to the development of Web application security scanners (i.e., automated software testing platforms for Web application security auditing) with some success. However, little is known about their potential side effects. It is possible for an auditing process to induce permanent changes in an application's state. Due to this potential, we have so far avoided large-scale empirical evaluations of our Web Application Vulnerability and Error Scanner (WAVES). we introduce a testing methodology that allows for harmless auditing, define three testing modes - heavy, relaxed, and safe modes, and report our results from two experiments. In the first, we compared the coverage and side effects of the three scanning modes using 5 real-world Web applications chosen from the 38 found vulnerable in a previous static verification effort. In the second, we used the relaxed mode to conduct a 48-hour test involving 1120 random Web sites, of which 55 were found to be vulnerable.

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